Exercise 2, 3, 4 in lab manual

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Lab Manual
updated 9 years ago by erinagray
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College: Second year
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1

What you look through; magnifies object viewed; contains pointer

Ocular lens(10X)

2

Supports ocular; contains lenses, prisms and/or mirrors

Tube

3

Revolves; holds objective lenses

Nosepiece

4

Magnifies object viewed

Objective lenses

5

Magnifies 4X; for scanning

Scanning lense

6

Magnifies 10X

Low power objective lense

7

Magnifies 40X

High Power objective lense

8

Magnifies 100X

Oil immersion objective lense

9

Calipers hold slide; slide moved by knobs (slide adjustment knobs)

Slide holder assembly

10

Platform; holds slide containing object to be viewed

Stage

11

Raises or lowers stage for coarsely focusing the object

Coarse adjustment knob

12

Brings object into sharp focus

Fine adjustment knob

13

Connects tube to base; vertical support; you use it to grasp and lift.

Arm

14

Bottom, flat surface support; you use it to support the microscope.

Base

15

Light source; built into base

Illuminator

16

Connect/disconnect to the electrical outlet by the plug not cord

Power Cord

17

Lenses that concentrate light to a stage; height adjustment by ring or knob

Condenser

18

Regulates stage opening diameter, thus the brightness of light passing through specimen; contrast with reduced light

Iris diapharagm

19

Ocular magnification X Objective magnification =

Total magnification

20

What kind of microscope will we use in class?

compound microscope

21

4 kinds of Objective lenses

Scanning, low power, high, power Oil immersion

22
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What is this a picture of?

Amoeba Proteus

23
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What is this a picture of?

Amoeba Proteus

24
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What is this an image of?

Amoeba Proteus

25

Small barrel-shaped organelles oriented at right angles to each other. They are best known for generating, microtubules and organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division

Centriole

26

An organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing mitotic spindle forms

Centrosome

27

Semifluid matrix that contains the nucleus and other organelles

Cytoplasm

28

A group of flattened sacs arranged like a stack of bowls. They function to modify and package proteins and lipids into vesicles.

Golgi apparatus

29

Vesicles from a golgi apparatus that contain digestive enzymes. They break down food, cellular debris and foreign invaders such as bacteria

Lysosome(vesicle)

30

Tiny hair like folds in the plasma membrane that extend from the surface of many absorptive or secretory cells. They increase the plasma membrane surface

Microvilli

31

Generates most of the cells supply of ATP, used as a source of chemical energy

Mitochondrion

32

Double layered membrane enclosing the nucleus of a cell that controls what enters and leaves the nucleus.

Nuclear membrane

33

It's where ribosomes are produced. The function is composed of immature sections of the rRNA

Nucleolus

34

A fluid found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cell. It's primary function is to act as a suspension medium for organelles of the nucleus.

Nucleoplasm and chromatin

35

DNA is kept and RNA is transcribed. It houses the genetic code, which in turn dictates protein synthesis. The control center for the cell

Nucleus

36

Movement of fluid and dissolved molecules into a cell by trapping them in a section of plasma membrane that pinches off to form an intracellular vesicle

Pinocytotic vesicle

37

Lipid bilyaer in which protein are embedded. The cells surface or outer limiting membrane

Plasma membrane

38

Small complexes of RNA and protein that are the sites of protein synthesis

Ribosomes

39

Internal membranes studded with Ribosomes that carry out protein synthesis

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

40

Secretion or ejection of substances from a cell. The substance is enclosed in a membranous vesicle, which fuses with the plasma membrane and ruptures, releasing the substance to the exterior

Exocytosis

41

Systems of internal membranes that aids in the manufacture of lipids, and detoxifies enzymes

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

42

Clear fluid sacs that act as storage areas for food, minerals and waste

Vacuole

43

An intricate complex of proteins which lines each pore, forming an aqueous transport channel and regulating entry and exit of molecules and large particles into and out of the nucleus

Nuclear pore

44

Flexible framework for the cell. Provides attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible The star shaped structure having raylike fibers surround the centrosome during mitosis.

Cytoskeletal proteins (asters)

45
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What is #1 in this picture?

Plasma membrane

46
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What is #2 in this picture?

Mitochondrion

47
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What is #3 in this picture?

Cytoplasm

48
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What is #4 in this picture?

Golgi Apparatus

49
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What is #5 in this picture?

Lysosome(vesicle)

50
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What is #6 in this picture?

Exocytosis

51
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What is #7 in this picture?

Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum(SER)

52
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What is #8 in this picture?

Ribosomes

53
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What is #9 in this picture?

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)

54
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What is #10 in this picture?

Vacuole

55
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What is #11 in this picture?

Nuclear membrane

56
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What is #12 in this picture?

Nuclear pore

57
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What is #13 in this picture?

Nucleoplasm and Chromatin

58
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What is #14 in this picture?

Nucleolus

59
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What is #15 in this picture?

Cytoskeletal proteins(asters)

60
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What is #16 in this picture?

Centriole

61

Lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body. It is used for swimming.

Flagellum

62

Breaks though the outer membrane of the egg

Acrosome

63

Contains the genetic material

Nucleus

64

Generates most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate(ATP), used as a source of chemical energy

Mitochondrian

65

What parts make up a sperm cell?

Nucleus, flagellum, mitochondria and acrosome

66

Groups of cells that are similar in structure and preform a common or related function

Tissue

67

A sheet of cells that cover a body surface or lines a body cavity

Epithelial tissue or an epithelium

68

Spindle shape and contains one centrally located nucleus; its cells have no visible striations

smooth muscle cell

69

located mainly in the walls of hollow organs such as the heart or digestive tract

smooth muscle cell

70

It's function is to squeeze substances through hollow organs by alternately contracting and relaxing

smooth muscle cell

71

The central part of a neuron in a nerve cell

nerve cell body

72

projections from the nerve cell body are called ________?

nerve cell processes

73

How does the smooth muscle cell retain it's shape?

connective tissue

74

Hollow organs of the body (blood vessels, stomach, ureters) have _______ muscles making up their walls

smooth muscles

75
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What is this a picture of?

nerve cell from a spinal cord

76
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What is this a picture of?

Simple squamous

77
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What is this a picture of?

smooth muscle cell

78
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What is this a picture of?

nerve cell

79

Transportation of respiratory gases (O2 and CO2) is the function of _________

erythrocytes(red blood cell)

80

Protects our body from bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins and tumor cells is the function of __________

Leukocytes(white blood cell)

81
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What is this a picture of?

blood cell

82
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what are the smaller pale pink or beige stained cells in this field

red blood cells(erythrocyte)

83
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what are the larger dark colored cells in this field

white blood cells(leukocytes)

84

What is the function of cilia

Cilia and Flagella are hairlike organelles that branch out from the surface of the cell, where they help in the movement. It beats or moves stuff in one direction

85
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What is at the end of this pointer?

Cilia

86
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What are the arrows pointing to in this picture?

goblet cells

87

What do goblet cells do?

They produce mucin a complex glycoprotein that dissolves in water

88
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What phase of mitosis is this?

Interphase

89
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What phase of mitosis is this?

phrophase

90
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What phase of mitosis is this?

metaphase

91
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What phase of mitosis is this?

anaphase

92
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What stage of mitosis is this?

telophase/cytokinesis

93
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What phase of mitosis is this?

Interphase

94
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What phase of mitosis is this?

prophase

95
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What phase of mitosis is this?

metaphase

96
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What phase of mitosis is this?

anaphase

97
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What phase of mitosis is this?

telophase/cytokinesis

98
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What phase of mitosis is this?

interphase

99
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What phase of mitosis is this?

prophase

100
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What phase of mitosis is this?

metaphase

101
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What phase of mitosis

anaphase

102
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What stage of mitosis is this?

telophase

103
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What stage of mitosis is this?

cytokinesis

104
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What stage of mitosis is this?

metaphase

105
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What stage of mitosis is this?

anaphase

106
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What stage of mitosis is this?

anaphase

107

Where is G1, S and G2 in cell division?

Interphase

108

What happens in G1 phase of Interphase?

Rapid growth and metabolic activity; centriole replication

109

What happens in the S phase on interphase?

Chromosome replication

110

What happens in G2 phase of interphase?

Growth and final preparations for cell division

111

Cells spend most of their time in what phase?

Interphase

112

Chromosomes duplicate in which phase of mitosis?

Interphase

113

The nuclear membrane disappears and the chromosomes spread out in the cell during what phase of mitosis?

Prophase

114

Chromosomes condense and become visible in the nucleus during what phase of mitosis?

Prophase

115

The mitotic spindle begins to form in what phase of mitosis?

Prophase

116

Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell on the equator line in what phase of mitosis?

Metaphase

117

Two identical sets of chromosomes migrate along the spindle fibers to opposite ends of the cell in what phase of mitosis?

Anaphase

118

Chromosomes uncoil and again become indistinct in what Phase of mitosis?

Telophase

119

Nuclear membrane forms around each of the two sets of chromosomes clustered at opposite ends of the cell in what phase of mitosis?

Telophase

120

Cell division occurs, resulting in two daughter cells in what stage of mitosis?

Telophase

121

What is the purpose of mitosis?

Process of nuclear cell division; replace old cells

122

Which cells of the body constantly undergo mitosis?

epithelium, intestinal lining and blood cells

123

What cells in the body never undergo mitosis?

Neurons, skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles

124

When does DNA replication occur?

S phase of interphase

125

Is interphase a phase of mitosis?

no

126

What is mitosis

Process of nuclear division in which chromosomes are distributed to 2 daughter nuclei.