Pharmaceutics Exam 1
Which part of the Epidermis is the rate limiting step for percutaneous absorption?
How thick is the stratum corneum?
What are the Langerhans cells function?
Immune competent (antigen-presenting) cells
Which part of the skin contains the blood?
What is skin as a route of administration for systemic delivery?
Are most transdermal drugs Drug-In-Adhesive Controlled systems (Matrix) or Reservoir?
What are the 3 types of bases for transdermal drugs?
- Acrylate based
- Silicone based
- Polyisobutylene (PIB) based
Patches are similar to what type of drug administration?
IV infusion administration
If a potent drug is made in a patch form, would a low or high dose be preferred?
Why are reservoir patches less preferred?
Are patches good for drugs with a short or long half-life?
Is passive delivery good for lipophilic or lipophobic drugs?
Do patch drugs have a larger or smaller molecular weight?
If you double the Surface Area of a patch you will double the what?
What happens if you increase temperature of a patch?
Increase delivery (can be dangerous)
Why is trimming hair and not shaving required when applying a patch to the skin?
Shaving damages the Stratum Corneum
What is the molecular weight requirement for a patch drug?
less than 500
Will increasing concentration increase or decrease drug delivery?
Why do we want to be close to saturation, but not fully saturated when referring to transdermal?
Full saturation allows drug to have higher chance of crystallization
This corresponds to how the drug is being distributed between lipids and water:
The more log P the more what a drug is?
What is dose dumping?
All of the drug is delivered at once
This forces the drug into the body by the like charge of the drug matching with the like charge of the electrode:
Iontophoresis is highly used in what type of facility?
What method destroys the Stratum Corneum therefore allowing us to see how much of the drug is actually in the Stratum Corneum?
Which method involves bombarding the skin with crystals?
Titanium oxide would be an example of what in a capsule?
What part of a capsule is obtained by the hydrolysis of collagen?
Where you we get collagen from?
skin and bones of animals
What is the most common method for the sealing of capsules?
Capsule sizes range from 000 to 5. Which is a smaller capsule?
5 (larger the number, the smaller the capsule)
Lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, and pregelatinized starch are examples of what?
Magnesium stearate is an example of a what?
Colloidal/Fumed silicon dioxide or Talc are examples of what?
Adding too much lubricant to a drug is known as what?
Polycarbate 80 is an example of a what?
What is mixing the drug in a smaller size of excipient then adding more excipient little by little so that the drug mixes well?
How can you extract gelatin material from a capsule?
With a syringe
What makes soft gelatin capsules actually soft?
The liquids inside soft gelatin capsules can be what?
- PEG 400
- Polyethylene Glycol
PG and Glycerin would be examples of what?
Vehicles in which the drug dissolves
Why would peppermint oil be added as an excipient to a drug?
Emergency SL delivery
What are dyes in drugs used for?
Which capsules do not contain gelatin?
HPMC (Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose) capsules
What is a tablet's ability or tendency to crumble?
These are tablets that have a cut-line or are "safe to break":
These are tablets are are coated with a dissolving film polymer:
These tablets are safe in acidic pH and won't dissolve. They only dissolve in alkaline pH:
What is the component used to form an EC tablet?
Cellulose Acetate Phthalate
Why might a tablet be layered?
- Drug might be ER
- Multiple drugs in one tablet (buffer layer between)
What is a press-coated tablet?
Inner tablet enclosed within a larger tablet
Can chewable tablets be swallowed and not chewed?
What is a large excipient used to sweeten a chewable tablet?
These tablets may involve, e.g., reaction of sodium bicarbonate with tartaric or citric acid, liberating carbon dioxide (used in water):
How long does it normally take or an RDT to dissolve in the mouth?
What are advantages of RDTs?
- Easiness to take
What is a major disadvantage of an RDT?
Delivery that lyophilizes a foam of drug/gelatin/sugar in a mold that also serves as the unit dose dispensing package:
Zydis delivery system
These are small masses of molded powders with rapidly soluble materials:
Tablet triturates or molded tablets
Tablet triturates are made in molds designed as two plates. What does each plate contain
- Plate 1: Pegs
- Plate 2: Matching holes/cavitites
These tablets are hard candy or soft sugar base (dissolve slowly or chew for localized effects):
These are tablets that dissolve under the tongue:
These are heavy equipment of various capacities which compress powdered or granulated tableting materials through the use of various shaped punches and dies:
What is added to tablets so they don't fall apart (when outside of the body)?
What is added so that tablets will fall apart inside of the body?
Tablet weight and thickness is controlled by the amount of what?
- Die fill
- Compression Pressure
Concave punches = ?
Provide bulk to make the tablet a practical size for compression
List examples of diluents:
- microcrystalline cellulose
- dicalcium phosphate
- powdered sucrose
Imparts cohesiveness to the tablet formulation:
List some examples of binding agents:
- natural and synthetic gums
What is available in varying degrees of polymerization?
Prevents adhesion of powder to surfaces of dies and punches and may improve flow:
List some examples of lubricants:
- Magnesium Stearate
Excess lubricant may result in what?
- poor disintegration
- delayed dissolution
Improve flow characteristics of powders:
List some examples of glidants:
- colloidal silicone dioxide
Colloidal silicone dioxide (Aerosil ; Cab-O- Sil) is a light, loose powder with a particle size of about what?
These facilitate the breakup of tablet after administration:
What is an example of a disintegrant?
Super disintegrants are only effective at low or high levels?
Disintegrants swell in the presence of water and cause what?
These are useful to distinguish one dose from another, and provide aesthetics
Where you take a soluble color and put it on an absorbent then add in order to make the color less soluble and easier to handle:
What are the 3 methods for making a tablet?
- Wet Granulation Method
- Dry Granulation Method
- Direct Compression
This is done so that powder can flow evenly & freely from the hopper into the dies
Powder is treated with a binder is known as:
Powder is compacted is known as:
Used when drug is moisture- or heat-sensitive and/or powder has cohesive properties
If a drug is more than 25% itself it must have what for direct compression?
Good flow properties
What corresponds to "a tablet can break up after compression"?
Sealing does what to a tablet?
Makes it waterproof
What is an example of a sealing coat?
Sugar-coating a tablet does what to the overall tablet?
Adds a lot of weight
What involves "minimizing the amount of water to do the coating"?
The orange peel effect corresponds to what?
The roughness of the tablet surface
What is the uneven distribution of color to a tab?
What is the "filling in" of a scored line or logo on a tablet?
These may be used for compounding for special needs when bulk drug is not available
Prefabricated dosage forms
Tablet friability should not be greater than what?
What can correspond to a tablet being "too friable"?
- punches of machine
Tablets must disintegrate within limits of official monograph, typically around what time?
Type II drug class corresponds to what?
- low solubility (easily soluble)
- high permeability (once dissolved/absorbs quickly)
Give example of ophthalmic antibiotic:
Ophthalmic vasoconstrictor function:
removes redness from eyes (Visine)
These ophthalmic solutions contract the pupil of the eye:
These ophthalmic solutions dilate the eye:
What would be an anti-inflammatory ophthalmic solution?
What is the tear volume of the eye?
How many microliters are in a drop?
Oxygen and nutrients are transported to nonvascular areas by what?
Chlorobutanol undergoes what chemical process?
Sterile ophthalmic solutions can have what composition?
- More than 1 preservative
- 1 preservative and EDTA
What is EDTA?
What concentration of NaCl is isotonic?
What concentration of Boric acid would be an osmotic equivalent?
List some examples of viscosity and thickening agents for ophthalmic solutions:
- MC (Methyl Cellulose)
Ocular bioavailability relates to what?
protein binding (Increase proportion of unionized drug for better absorption)
What is an ophthalmic insert?
Basically, a medicated contact lens
Adding Viscosity Increasing agent such as HPMC will allow ophthalmic drugs to what?
Stay in the eye longer
Soft lenses use a what?
Hydrogel (ex. HEMA)
Hydrogel is what composition of water?
This is used for drug targeting to posterior segment of the eye:
Single layer of cells (0.1-0.3 micron)
The alveolar lining surface area size:
100 square meters
Particles with an aerodynamic diameter of what reach the deep lung?
Aerosols depend on the WHAT to disperse the active ingredients in a finely dispersed mist, foam, or semisolid
power of a liquefied or compressed gas
Particle sizes of what would result in localized effects in trachea?
What particle size would result in the drug acting in the respiratory bronchioles?
Liquified gases are also known as what?
Liquified gases are more or less efficient than compressed gas/powder?
Aerosols are positively pressurized meaning what?
Nothing can come in, only can go out (maintains sterility)
This aerosol type is extremely effective, relatively inert, nontoxic & nonflammable:
Why were Fluorinated Hydrocarbons banned?
Hurt the Ozone
Are Hydrocarbons and Compressed gases flammable or not?
Nitrous oxide is a.k.a what?
When a propellant is used in an aerosol container what happens?
Pressure is maintained until the last drop
What occurs when a compressed gas is used in an aerosol container?
Pressure decreases after each use in can
Adding liquefied product first and then valve is known as what?
Adding the valve first, product later is known as what?
Is cold or pressure filling more commonly used and why?
Pressure; easier method
Vapor pressure of propellant exerts pressure in all directions in a aerosol container is known as what?
The Aerosol Principle
What controls the pressure and type of aerosol (spray)?
- Type & amount of propellant
- Product concentrate
Space sprays contain how much propellant?
as much as 85%
What is an example of a space spray?
What would be an example of a surface spray?
What aerosol type would correspond to emulsion?
Some liquid inhalers used other energy activated devices. What does this mean?
They use mechanical energy, not a propellant
What controls the amount of drug discharged in each dose?
Auxiliary Valve Chamber
Does a nebulizer use propellants?
Air stream produced manually or through compressed air source is used to do what?
Break the drug solution into fine particles
DPI (Dry Powder Inhalers) can deliver drugs to where?
DPIs use what to get the drug to the deep lung?
Carriers (ex. Lactose)
Do DPIs use propellants?
Risk of microbial growth is greater in liquids or solids?
Rapid acting inhaled insulin device from MannKind Corporation
In the drug Afrezza, insulin is absorbed through what?
A dry powder insulin formulation (1 or 3 mg) in blister packed doses is punctured to aerosolize contents into a holding chamber corresponded to which drug?
What generates excessive air/water interfaces, which may lead to denaturation or aggregation?
Evaporation of droplets may also increase protein concentration within a nebulizer reservoir fluid, which in turn may do what?
Destabilize the protein
Capsules are what percent of water?
If too much lubricant is added and a capsule becomes water-proof, what can reverse this?
This is done so that powder can flow evenly & freely from the hopper into the dies
What are "excess fines"?
Air around particles
At what stage does the weight increase in sugar coating?
Flaking of film fragments corresponds to what?
Picking and peeling
What is content uniformity?
Mixing of powder must be uniform in order to determine the same amount of drug