ANP 1106 Vocabulary

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1

Initial Reference Point

Body in standard anatomical position (body erect, feet slightly apart, and palms facing forward with thumbs pointing away from the body)

2

Superior (cranial)

Toward the head end or the upper par of a structure or the body; above.

3

Inferior (caudal)

Away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below.

4

Ventral (anterior)

Toward the front end of the body; in front of.

5

Dorsal (posterior)

Toward or at the back of the body; in behind of.

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Medial

Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of.

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Lateral

Away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of.

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Intermediate

Between a more medial and a more lateral structure.

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Proximal

Closer to the origin of the body part of the point of attachment.

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Distal

Farther from the origin of the body part or the point of attachment.

11

Superficial

Toward or at the body surface.

12

Deep

Away fro the body surface; more internal.

13

Regional Terms: axial part

Head, neck, and trunk.

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Regional Terms: appendicular part

Appendages or limbs attached to axis.

15

Regional Terms

Used to designate specific areas within the axial or appendicular part of the body.

16

Sagittal Plane

Vertical plane that divides the body into right and left parts

Midsagittal (media) plane :

Parasagittal plane :

17

Frontal (coronal) Plane

Vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.

18

Transverse Plane

From right to left dividing the body into superior and inferior parts (cross-section).

19

Dorsal Body Cavity: cranial cavity

Enclosed by the skull and houses the brain.

20

Dorsal Body Cavity: vertebral (spinal) cavity

Enclosed by vertebral column and houses the spinal cord.

21

Ventral Body Cavity: thoracic cavity

Two lateral pleural cavities (lungs) and a central pericardial cavity (heart).

22

Ventral Body Cavity: abdominopelvic cavity

Superior abdominal cavity (stomach, intestines, spleen, liver) and inferior pelvic cavity (bladder, some reproductive organs, rectum). There is no physical divider between the two allowing organs to overlap in sections.

23

Ventral Body Cavity

Composed of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities which are separated by the diaphragm.

24

4 Abdominopelvic Quadrants

Right upper quadrant

Right lower quadrant

Left upper quadrant

Left lower quadrant

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9 Abdominopelvic Regions

Right hypochondriac region

Right lumbar region

Right iliac (inguinal) region

Epigastic region

Umbilical region

Hypogastric (pubic) region

Left hypochondriac region

Left lumbar region

Left iliac (inguinal) region

26

Connective Tissue

Connective tissue proper [fat, fibrous tissue of ligaments], cartilage, bone, or blood. Largely nonliving extracellular matrix which separates the living cells of a tissue to bear weight, withstand great tension, or endure physical trauma and abrasion.

27

Extracellular Matrix

Ground substances (unstructured material that fills the space between cells and contains the fibers) and fibers.

28

Ground Substances

Unstructured material that fills the space between cells and contains the fibers.

29

Cartilage

- avascular (devoid of nerve fibers)

- ground substance contains lots of the GAGs (chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and chondronectin (adhesive protein))

- collagen fibers (can have some elastic fibers that makes more flexible; ears)

- up to 80% H2O - why they are so flexible in general

30

Cartilage: perichondrium

The cartilage layer surrounding cartilage containing blood vessels which provide nutrients to cartilage. In damaged areas, it forms scar tissue as it is poorly vascularized cartilage so it repairs badly; ossification of cartilage with aging.

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Cartilage: chondroblasts

Immature cartilage cells that actively form cartilage.

32

Cartilage: chondrocytes

Mature cartilage cells that maintain cartilage.

33

Cartilage: lacunae

Small localized cavities with clusters of chondrocytes in cartilage. This is where osteocytes are found.

34

Hyaline Cartilage

The most abundant form of cartilage that provides firm support/reindorcement and pliability (resilient cushioning and resistance to compressive stress) due to lots of collagen. It appears glassy blue-white in colour. Chondrocytes are only 1-10% of the volume.

Found in the embryonic skeleton, ends of long bones, costal cartilages of ribs, cartilages of nose, trachea, larynx...

35

Elastic Cartilage

Is like hyaline cartilage, but contains more elastic fibers to maintain shape while giving lots of flexibility.

Found in the external ear (change direction and position to focus hearing in animals) and epiglottis (must be strong and flexible).

36

Fibrocartilage

Produced from rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers acting as the strucural intermediate between hyaline cartilage and dense regular connective tissue (more fibers than normal). Provides tensile strength with the ability to absorb compressive shock.

Found in the intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis (during pregnancy), disks of the knee joints [meniscus] (where hyaline cartilage meets a ligament or a tendon to give more stability to the knee)

*no disk between C1 an C2

37

Location of Loose Cartilage

EC: External ear and epiglottis

FC: intervertebral disks, pubic symphysis, discs of knee joints

HC: Everything else

38

Bone [osseous tissue]

A living dynamic tissue which responds to its environment (amount of force applied - increases both the density and the amount of roughening on bone or decreasing) and stores calcium (reabsorbed and transferred to bloodstream when needed). Functions are to provide support, protection, allow movement, mineral and growth factor storage (calcium and phosphate), blood cell formation (hematopoiesis), fat storage, and hormone production (osteocalcin - regulates insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis, energy expendine).

Hard, calcified, and very well vascularized. Composed of a matrix containing many collagen fibers. Cells: osteoblast, osteocytes (in lacunae), and osteoclasts.