FC 6A (psych) Flashcards


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1

convergence

eyes move slightly inward to gather info about depth

2

sclera

white, outer portion

attachment for muscles

3

cornea action

bends light ray

4

conjuctiva

moisturizes and protects cornea

5

lens

...

6

posterior chamber

vitreous humour and beyond

7

choroid

nourishing blood vessels to the back of the eye

8

fovea

center of what?

rich in what?

center of retina

rich in cones

9

where are rods?

periphery

10

optic discs are in both rods and cones. proteins of each that are of note:

rhodopsin, conopsin

11

phototransduction cascade: basic 5 steps

light hits rod

rod turns off

rod turns on bipolar cell

turns on retinal ganglion cell **

optic nerve to brain

12

light causes what to change shape?

retinal. goes from bent to straight

this is within the rhodopsin, so it changes shape also

13

retinal shape change causes what?

alpha of trimer linked to rhodopsin to hit PDE.

cGMP --> GMP

14

when is sodium channel open?

when bound to cGMP

15

fovea

dimpled portion in retina

16

since no axons in the way of the light in the fovea,

light can directly hit the cones

17

which side of the eye does not cross the optic chiasm

temporal side

18

ray of light from left side of visual field:

which nasal side does it go to?

which temporal side?

goes to left nasal side

goes to right temporal side after being bent

19

Parvo pathway:

what

what is it bad at

spatial resolution

bad at temporal

20

motion pathway

aka

what is good, what is bad?

magno

high temporal

poor spatial

no color

21

temporal resolution

details during motion

22

spatial resolution

boundaries of an object

23

flow thru ear

pinna --> auditory canal --> tympanic membrane --> malleus --> incus --> stapes --> oval window --> cochlea --> circular window

24

external auditory meatus

pinna, auditory canal, tympanic membrane

25

what causes fluid motion?

stapes

26

organ of corti

splits cochlea in two, causing unidirectional motion

27

what ion is related to the cochlea hair bundle?

potassium channels opened up by cochlear fluid

calcium and K+ flow in, causing action potential

28

basilar membrane

which part is activated by high frequency?

base

(hair cells)

29

primary auditory cortex receives all info from where?

cochlea

30

see cochlear implant and ear structure images

...

31

signal detection theory

decision making w/ uncertainty

32

dermatomes

location of astimulus

33

semi-circular canal: how is it arranged

all orthoganol to each other

34

otolithic organs (3 things)

linear acceleration, head positioning, gravity

35

what part of vestibular system contains crystals?

otolithic

36

vestibular system deals w/ what

balance, dizziness

37

nociception

pain

38

proprioception

position

39

4 parts of somatosensation

type, intensity, timing, location

40

absolute threshold of sensation

lowest level of any stimulus that we can GENERALLY detec

50% of the time

41

subliminal

stimuli below absolute threshhold

42

webers law

just noticeable difference (threshold)

43

Webers law equation

(Delta I/I) = K

44

interposition

looking at a pic and infer that one thing is in front of another

45

2 binocular cues

retinal disparity

convergence

46

retinal disparity

putting images together from each eye to get an idea of depth

47

convergence

...

48

borders of the ear

btwn middle and inner

btwn outer and middle

oval window

tympanic membrane

49

base of choclea vs apex

narrower base

50

tightening tympanic membrane

slows down transduction... dampens loud sounds

51

what transfers vibration

ossicles

52

interaural level difference

diff in sound pressure levels btwn the ears

53

joint attention

focusing of attention on an object by 2 different individuals

54

transduction

energy transformed from one form to another

55

marrs 4 stages of vision

1. grey level description

2. primal sketch stage

3. 2.5 d sketch stage: surfaces and scenes related to one another

4. 3D object-centered description stage

56

border btwn middle and inner ear

oval window

57

outer and middle ear border

tympanic membrane

58

how to dampen loud sounds

tightening tympanic membrane

59

interaural level difference

the diff in sound pressure btwn the ears

60

azimuth?

...

61

ossicles transfer what in the ear?

vibration

62

when a sound is really loud, what part of the ear acts to do what?

inner ear contracts. not immediate

63

what happens to the pupils if rly bright

constrict

down regulation

64

upregulation of pupils

dilate

in darkness

65

non-adapting neurons

diff neurons firing steadily the whole time

66

slow adapting neurons

fire a bunch at first, then slow down

67

fast adapting neurons

fire fast at start, then stop, then fast again at end of stimulus

68

rewatch signal detection theory part 2

...

69

gestalt law of continuity

lines are seen as following the smoothest path

70

hair cells at the base of the basilar membrane are activated by what sounds?

high frequency

71

4 aspects of somatosensation

temperature, pressure, pain, position

72

Somatosensory homunculus

map of ur body in ur brain

73

sensory strip

part of what

located where

what

part of the somatosensory homunculus

cortex

diff parts of the body hit diff parts of the sensory strip

74

does the contracting muscle get thinner or thicker?

thinner,

75

muscle spindle senses what, causing it to stretch?

muscle contraction

allowing u to sense where u are in space

76

TrpV1 receptor deals with what two things?

pain and temperature

attached to nerves that go to the brain

77

nerves of TrpV1 receptors have fast, medium, and slow fibers.

fast:

medium:

slow:

wide, covered in myelin. fastest

slow is unmyelinated and slowest

78

bigger diameter means a greater ____ because of a lower ____

conductance

resistance

79

still need notecards for taste and smell tutorial.

...

80

rly cold vs hot: rate of neurons firing

rly cold=fire a few times

rly hot=fire a lot, fast

81

cochlea detects what?

sound

82

otolithic organs

utricle and saccule

83

semicircular canals detect what

rotational acceleration

84

directed attn vs selective attention

single task focus

selective is maintaining attention while being presented with masking or interfering stimuli