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American Pageant
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Election of 1860

the election in which abraham lincoln was first elected president due to the schism of the democrats,caused a chain reaction of southern states to secede from the union since they were afraid of lincoln's policies.


Uncle Tom's cabin

a novel published by harriet be echer stowe in 1852 whichpar trayed slavery as brutal and immoral


Gadsden Purchase

the purchasing of land from mexico that completed the continental united states it provided the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad


Ostend Manifesto

the recommendation that the u.s. offer spain $20 million for cuba. it was not carried through in part because the north feared cuba would become another slave state


Personal Liberty Laws

laws passed by northern states forbidding the imprisonment of escaped slaves


Kansas-Nebraska Act

created nebraska and kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.


Bleeding kansas

conflict over the expansion of slavery into the kansas territory during its transition to statehood. free-staters battled slavery supporters with violence.


Freeport Doctrine

doctrine developed by stephen douglas that said the exclusion of slavery in a territory could be determined by the refusal of the voters to enact any laws that would protect slave property. it was unpopular with southerners, and thus cost him the election.


Lincoln-Douglas Debates

1858 senate debate, lincoln forced douglas to debate issue of slavery, douglas supported pop-sovereignty, lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, lincoln emerged as strong republican candidate


Dred Scott v. Sanford

1857 supreme court decision that stated slaves were not citizens: slaves were property no matter where they were living and the missouri compromise unconstitutional


Abraham Lincoln

16th president of the united states saved the union during the civil war and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by booth


Roger Taney

chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 dred scott case that declared the missouri compromise unconstitutional


Popular Sovereignty

the concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. people express themselves through voting and free participation in government


Ex Parte Milligan

supreme court decided that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional because civilian courts were still operating, and the constitution of the united states (according to the court) only provided for suspension of habeas corpus if these courts are actually forced closed. in essence, the court ruled that military tribunals could not try civilians in areas where civil courts were open, even during wartime.


Ex Parte Merryman

a supreme court case that chief justice taney's ruled that the suspension of habeas corpus was unconstitutional without an act of congress. lincoln openly defied the ruling by suspending it for the arrest of anti-unionists during the civil war. this shows how a president can sometimes overstep their power.


Prize Cases

the supreme court's decision declared constitutional the blockade of the southern ports ordered by president abraham lincoln. this was without a declaration of war because congress was not in session.


Ableman v. Booth

held that state courts cannot issue rulings that contradict the decisions of federal courts, overturning a decision by the supreme court of wisconsin. for example, it is illegal for state officials to interfere with the work of u.s. marshals acting under federal laws.


Prigg v. Pennsylvania

supreme court case in which edward prigg appealed to the us supreme court on the grounds that the pennsylvania law arrogated the state powers over and above those allowed by the us constitution the court held that federal law is superior to state law, and overturned the conviction of prigg as a result.


Young America

the ideal that came to be identified with young democrats who favored expansionism


Hinton Helper

a southern critic of slavery during the 1850s who wrote a book entitled the impending crisis of the south the book put forth the notion that slavery hurt the economic prospects of non-slaveholders, and was an impediment to the growth of the entire region of the south.


George Fitzhugh

sociology for the south, or the failure of free society,the most influential propagandist in the decade before the civil war. in his sociology (1854), he said that the capitalism of the north was a failure. in another writing he argued that slavery was justified when compared to the cannibalistic approach of capitalism. tried to justify slavery.


Crittenden Compromise

attempt to prevent civil war by senator crittenden - offered a constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30' line, noninterference by congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves - defeated by republicans


Crittenden resolution

stated that the war was being fought solely "to defend and maintain the supremecy of the constitution and to preserve the constitution"


Manassas Junction-Bull Run

first battle of the war; the south pushed the union army back to dc


Fort Sumter

first shots of civil war, confederates fired upon federal fort, fort surrenders, war begins


Northern Strategy

blockade south with naval advantage -capture mississippi r. & cut off western states from the rest of the south -invade virginia & capture richmond


Southern strategy

received southern support from the democratic party in exchange for promise of no new civil rights legislation



a group of northern democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the south during the civil war


Emancipation Proclamation

issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious confederate states would be free



it was a major union victory over the south. it removed all hopes in the south of getting foreign support.


Anaconda Plan

union war plan by winfield scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of richmond, capture mississippi river, and to take an army through heart of south


Confiscation Acts

laws passed by the united states government during the civil war with the intention of freeing the slaves still held by the confederate forces in the south.


Presidential Reconstruction

was the president's idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and men had to pledge their loyalty to the u.s.


Congressional Reconstruction

divided the south into 5 military districts and stationed troops in each district


Thirteenth Amendment

abolished slavery


Fourteenth Amendment

granted corporations status as legal persons in u.s


Fifteenth Amendment

the right of citizens of the united states to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the united states or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.


Tenure of Office Act

required the president to secure consent of the senate before removing appointees once they had been approved


1876 Election

one of the most disputed and controversial presidential elections in american history. samuel j. tilden of new york outpolled ohio's rutherford b. hayes in the popular vote, and had 184 electoral votes to hayes's 165, with 20 votes uncounted. these twenty electoral votes were in dispute in three states: florida, louisiana, and south carolina; each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in oregon one elector was declared illegal (as an "elected or appointed official") and replaced. the twenty disputed electoral votes were ultimately awarded to hayes after a bitter legal and political battle, giving him the victory.


Compromise of 1877

ended reconstruction. republicans promise 1) remove military from south, 2) appoint democrat to cabinet (david key postmaster general), 3) federal money for railroad construction and levees on mississippi river


Wade-Davis Bill

an 1864 plan for reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.