life span chap 6

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 2 years ago by monicamonroe1113
14 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

What is Cognitive development?

The study of thought and the behaviors that reflect those processes.

2

Major Theories and Perspectives

  • Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Stage Theory
  • Lev Vygotsky’s Social Cultural Theory
  • The Information Processing Approach
  • The Cognitive Neuroscience Approach
3

Piaget's Themes

  • Organization:
  • Adaptation:
    • Assimilation
    • Accommodation
  • Equilibration:
4

Piagets Theory define organization

the ability to form systems of knowledge, also known as schemes, from information in the environment

5

Piaget's Theory define Adaptation

the ability to incorporate new conflicting information into schemes

  • Assimilation
  • Accommodation
6

Piaget's Theory - Assimilation

Don't change your scheme - taking the information and "shoving" it into your scheme

7

Piaget's Theory- Accommodation

Change your scheme - change your scheme due to the new information.

8

Piaget's Theory - Equilibration-

A constant striving for balance and complete integration. Sends kids from one stage to the next- a reorganizing of the mind - cleaning out the sock drawer.

9

Piaget's Theory - the sensory-motor stage

Birth - 2 years - sensor more in their mouth - 6 stages

10

Piaget's 6 stages for the sensory-motor stage

  1. simple reflexes
  2. first habits
  3. manipulation of objects
  4. complex and goal directed behavior
  5. originality in problem solving
  6. internalization of schemes- pretending
11

Object Permanence

12- 24 months - idea that a child can hold on to a concept even when the object is gone

12

circular reactions

  1. primary- actions all involve babies body
  2. secondary- action by baby gets outwards response (parents) and is repeated.
  3. Tertiary- baby tries to get the same response by doing different action
13

Jean Piaget's 4 Stages

  1. sensory -birth -2
  2. preoperational - 2-7
  3. concreate operational stage - 7 -11
  4. Formal Operational Stage - 11 - adulthood
14

what symbolizes the transition from the sensory stage to the preoperational stage

object permanence

15

Piaget's Pre-operational stage

  • Expansion of symbolic thought - holding in their mind things that aren't in their environment anymore (hide a toy they still want it)
  • Not logical thinkers yet

Symbolic Function Sub-stage

Intuitive Thought Sub-stage

16

Symbolic Function Substage

  • 2-4 years
  • "What's that" stage
  • Egocentrism - inability to see perspective other than own
  • Animism - stuffed animal has feelings
  • Understanding of identities
17

Intuitive Thought Sub-stage

  • Ages 4-7 years
  • "Why" stage - take things at face value
  • Desire to explain and understand
  • Theory of mind
  • Centration -
  • Transductive Reasoning
18

Egocentrism

inability to see perspective other than own

19

Animism

stuffed animal has feelings

20

Theory of mind

they know your mind is different than theirs - (you like vegs, I like candy)

21

Centration

They can only focus one 1 prospective at a time - difficulty reversing things like math

22

concrete Operations

  • Ages 7-11 years
  • Use mental operations to solve concrete problems
  • Logical Thinkers
23

Improvements over pre-operational Thinkers

  • Spatial Thinking
  • Classification
  • Conservation
    • Horizontal Décalage
24
  • Spatial Thinking

how things are related in space

25

Classifactions

Ability to organize objects based on categories or characteristics

26

Conservation

ability to understand that appearance and mass are not equal

27

Horizontal Decalage

learn at different points

  1. number -earliest
  2. mass
  3. liquid -latest
28

Formal operations

  • Ages 11 - adulthood
  • 1/3 to 1/2 of adults do not reach this stage as Piaget defined it
29

Formal Operations skills

Adolescent egocentrism

imaginary audiences

hypothetical deductive reasoning

abstract thought

30

imaginary audiences

they think they are always being watched

31

hypothetical deductive reasoning

What if game - ability to think through problems to guess outcome rather than trial and error

32

abstract thought

person can think about hypothetical and abstract concepts that have yet to experiences

symbols for symbols - understand pie symbol = 3.14

extraterrestrial space

33

A Fifth Cognitive Stage

  • Post-formal Thought
  • Proposed by non-piagetions
  • Includes cognitive thought that is
    • Relativistic
    • Provisional
    • Realistic
    • Influenced by emotions
34

In the possible fifth cognitive stage, cognitive thought is

  • Relativistic
  • Provisional
  • Realistic
  • Influenced by emotions
35

relativistic cognitive thought

correct answers depends on setting

36

Provisional cognitive thought

search for truth is ongoing

37

Realistic cognitive thought

truth shouldn't always be abstract

38

influenced by emotion cognitive thought

how we think at the moment influences our thoughts

realistic vs abstract

39

Lev Vygotsky

  • Born in Russia same year as Piaget
  • Became a lawyer but interested in special needs children
40

Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development

  • Social constructivism Approach
  • Zone of proximal Development
  • Language and Play Activities
  • Scaffolding
  • Collaborative learning
41

Zone of proximal Development

what someone can learn with help vs without

42

social constructivsm approach

society informs your thoughts and values of knowledge