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Missouri Compromise of 1820

an agreement in 1820 between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States concerning the extension of slavery into new territories


Monroe doctrine

a principle of US foreign policy that opposes the influence or interference of outside powers in the Americas


1824 Election

In 1824, John Quincy Adams was elected President after the election when the House of Representative chose the winner. The Democratic-Republican party splintered as 4 separate candidates sought the presidency. The election was the only time since the 12th Amendment was passed that an election was decided by the House.


Corrupt Bargain

A political scandal that arose when the Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, allegedly met with John Quincy Adams before the House election to break a deadlock. Adams was elected president against the popular vote and Clay was named Secretary of State.


Tariff of Abominations

designed to raise revenue for the federal government; resulted in a government surplus


Nullification Crisis

a sectional crisis during the presidency of andrew jackson created by the ordinance of nullification, an attempt by the state of south carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the united states congress.


The American System

an economic regime pioneered by Henry clay which created a high tariff to support internal improvements such as road-building. this approach was intended to allow the united states to grow and prosper by themselves this would eventually help america industrialize and become an economic power.


Marshall Court

chief justice john marshall; established the power of the federal government over the states; supremacy clause; supported by mcculloch v. maryland and gibbons v. ogden


Denmark Vesey

american insurrectionist. a freed slave in south carolina, he was implicated in the planning of a large uprising of slaves and was hanged. the event led to more stringent slave codes in many southern states.


Nat Turner

slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from god his rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in america and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.


Gabriel Prosser

in 1800 this slave planned a slave uprising that was betrayed by other slaves. Prosser and his followers were executed.


Spoils Systems

the practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.


Webster-Hayne Debate

it was an unplanned series of speeches in the senate, during which robert hayne of south carolina interpreted the constitution as little more than a treaty between sovereign states, and daniel webster expressed the concept of the united states as one nation. the debate cemented the image of daniel webster, as a legendary defender of constitution and union


Tariff Act of 1832

tax on imported goods which upset the south especially the state of south carolina



party that favored a national bank, protective tariffs and eventually the abolition of slavery


National Republican

split from the democratic-republican party to promote strong national government and to oppose andrew jackson's campaign for presidency



representing or appealing to or adapted for the benefit of the people at large


Compromise Tariff of 1833

it was a new tariff proposed by Henry clay and john Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816 this compromise avoided civil war and prolonged the union for another 30 years.


Force Bill

bill that says congress is authorized to use the military against belligerent states. is nullified by South Carolina.


Gag Rule

law passed by southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in congress


South Carolina Exposition and Protest

in 1828 calhoun anonymously wrote this widely circulated book which he spelled out his argument that the tariff of 1828 was unconstitutional and that aggrieved states therefore had the right to nullify the law within their borders.



a nineteenth-century movement in the romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience.


Second Great Awakening

was the second great religious revival in united states history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings.


Abolitionist Movement

movement to end slavery


Seneca Falls Convention

this was a meeting of feminists at Seneca falls where the women mimicked the declaration to include women and their grievances as well as demanded the vote. the convention started the feminist movement.


Hudson River School

founded by thomas cole, first native school of landscape painting in the u.s.; attracted artists rebelling against the neoclassical tradition, painted many scenes of new york's hudson river



a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization


Election of 1844

main debate over Texas. Whigs nominate Henry clay and democrats nominate James Polk. Polk says he will annex Texas and Oregon to make both sides happy. Polk was elected


Mexican-American War

the war between the united states and mexico in which the united states acquired one half of the mexican territory.


Manifest Destiny

the belief that the u.s. should extend all the way to the pacific ocean


Wilmot Proviso

dispute over whether any mexican territory that america won during the mexican war should be free or a slave territory. a representative named david wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from mexico would be free. this amendment passed the house twice, but failed to ever pass in senate. the "wilmot proviso", as it became known as, became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the u.s.


Free Soil party

political party dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery


Compromise of 1850

agreement over slavery by which california joined the union as a free state and a strict fugitive slave law was passed


Cherokee Nation v. Georgia

the cherokees argued that they were a seperate nation and therefore not under georgia's jurisdiction. marshall said they were not, but rather had "special status"


Texas issue

mexico wanted us citizens to come over and settle then become mexican but they refused to become mex so santa anna came after them -- they eventually won and texas wanted to become apart of the us, tyler lets them in


Mexican Cession

land that mexico gave to the united states after the mexican war through the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo


Gadsden Purchase

the purchasing of land from mexico that completed the continental united states it provided the land needed to build the transcontinental railroad.


Ostend Manifesto

a document drawn up in 1854 that instructed the buying of cuba from spain, then suggested the taking of cuba by force it caused outrage among northerners who felt it was a southern attempt to extend slavery as states in cuba would be southern states.


John C. Calhoun

south carolina senator, advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification