General Anatomy and Physiology Flashcards


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1

Abductors

Muscles that separate the fingers

2

Abductor Hallucis

Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.

3

Adductors

Muscles at the base of each finger that draw the fingers together.

4

Anabolism

Constructive metabolism; the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones.

5

Anatomy

Study of human body structure that can be seen with the naked eye, and what they are made up of; the science of the structure of organisms, or of their parts.

6

Angular Artery

Supplies blood to the side of the nose.

7

Anterior Auricular Artery

Supplies blood to the front part of the ear.

8

Anterior Tibial Artery

See "popliteal artery."

9

Anterior Tibial Nerve

See "deep peroneal nerve."

10

Arteries

Thick-walled, muscular, flexible tubes that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries.

11

Atrium

The upper thin walled chambers of the heart.

12

Auricularis Anterior

Muscle in front of the ear that draws the ear forward.

13

Auricularis Posterior

Muscle behind the ear that draws the ear backward.

14

Auricularis Superior

Muscle above the ear that draws the ear upward.

15

Auriculotemporal Nerve

Affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull.

16

Autonomic Nervous System

The part of the nervous system that controls the involuntary muscles; regulates the action of the smooth muscles, glands. blood vessels, and heart.

17

Axon

The extension of a neuron by which impulses are sent away from the nerve cell.

18

Belly (muscle)

Middle part of a muscle.

19

Bicep

Muscle producing the contour of the front and inner side of the upper arm.

20

Blood

Fluid circulating through the circulatory system (heart, veins, arteries, and capillaries).

21

Blood Vascular System

Group of structures (heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries) that distribute blood throughout the body.

22

Body Systems

Groups of bodily organs acting together to perform one or more functions. The human body is composed of 10 major systems.

23

Brain

Part of the central nervous system contained in the cranium; largest and most complex nerve tissue; controls sensation, muscles, gland activity, and the power to think and feel emotions.

24

Buccal Nerve

Affects the muscles of the mouth.

25

Buccinator Muscle

Thin, flat muscle of the cheek between the upper and lower jaw that compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips.

26

Capillaries

Thin-walled blood vessels that connect the smaller arteries to the veins.

27

Cardiac Muscle

The involuntary muscle that is the heart.

28

Carpus

The wrist; flexible joint composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones held together by ligaments.

29

Catabolism

The phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones resulting in the release of energy to perform functions such as muscular movement or digestion.

30

Cell Membrane

Part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm capable of performing all the fundamental functions of life.

31

Cell

Basic unit of all living things; minute mass of protoplasm capable of performing all the fundamental functions of life.

32

Central Nervous System

Consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves.

33

Cervical Cutaneous Nerve

Located at the side of the neck, affects the front and sides of the neck as far down as the breastbone.

34

Cervical Nerves

Affect the side of the neck and the platysma muscle.

35

Cervical Vertebrae

The seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column, located in the neck region.

36

Circulatory System

System that controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels.

37

Clavicle

Collarbone; bone joining the sternum and scapula.

38

Common Carotid Artery

Artery that supplies blood to the face, head, and neck.

39

Common Peroneal Nerve

A division of the sciatic nerve that extends from behind the knee to wind around the head of the fibula to the front of the leg where it divides into two branches.

40

Connective Tissue

Fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body such as bone, cartilage, and tendons.

41

Corrugator Muscle

Muscle located beneath the frontalis and orbicularis oculi that draws the eyebrow down and wrinkles the forehead vertically.

42

Cranium

An oval, bony case that protects the brain.

43

Cytoplasm

All the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus; the watery fluid that contains food material necessary for growth, reproduction, and self-repair of the cell.

44

Deep Peroneal Nerve

A nerve that extends down the front of the leg, behind the muscles. It supplies impulses to these muscles and also to the muscles and skin on the top of the foot and adjacent sides of the first and second toes.

45

Deltoid

Large triangular muscle covering the shoulder joint that allows the arm to extend outward and to the side of the body.

46

Dendrites

Tree-like branching of nerve fibers extending from a nerve cell; short nerve fibers that carry impulses toward the cell.

47

Depressor Labii Inferioris Muscle

Muscle surrounding the lower lip; depresses the lower lip and draws it to one side.

48

Diaphragm

Muscular wall that separates the thorax from the abdominal region and helps control breathing.

49

Digestive system

The mouth, stomach, intestines, and sailivary and gastric glands that change food into nutrients and wastes.

50

Digit

A finger or toe.

51

Digital Nerve

Nerve that, with its branches, supplies the fingers and toes.

52

Dorsal

A nerve that extends up from the toes and the foot, just under the skin, supplying impulses to toes and foot, as well as the muscles and skin of the leg, where it is called the superficial peroneal nerve or the musculo-cutaneous nerve.

53

Dorsal Cutaneous Nerve

See "dorsal"

54

Dorsalis Pedis Artery

See "popliteal"

55

Endocrine System

Group of specialized glands that affect the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the entire body.

56

Epicranial Aponeurosis

Tendon that connects the occipitalis and frontalis.

57

Epicranius

The broad muscle that covers the top of the skull consists of the occipitalis and frontalis.

58

Epithelial Tissue

Protective covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes, and the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs, and glands.

59

Ethmoid Bone

Light spongy bone between the eye sockets and forms part of the nasal cavities.

60

Excretory System

Group of organs including the kidneys, liver, skin, intestines, and lungs that purify the body by the elimination of waste matter.

61

Exhalation

The act of breathing outward, expelling carbon dioxide from the lungs.

62

Exocrine (duct) Glands

Duct glands that produce a substance that travels through small tube-like ducts, such as the sudoriferous (sweat) glands and the sebaceous (oil) glands.

63

Extensors

Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and fingers to form a straight line.

64

Extensor digitorum brevis

Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.

65

Extensor digitorum longus

Muscle that bends the foot up and extends the toes.

66

External carotid artery

Supplies blood to the anterior (front) parts of the scalp, ear, face, neck, and side of the head.

67

External jugular vein

Vein located at the side of the neck that caries blood returning to the heart from the head, face, and neck.

68

Facial artery

Supplies blood to the lower region of the face, mouth, and nose.

69

Femur

A heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee.

70

Fibula

The smaller of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The fibula may be visualized as a "bump" on the little toe side of the ankle.

71

Fifth cranial nerve (also known as trifacial or trigeminal)

The chief sensory nerve of the face, and serves as the motor nerve of the muscles that control chewing.

72

Flexors

Extensor muscles of the wrist involved in flexing the wrist.

73

Flexor digitorum brevis

Muscle of the foot that moves the toes and help maintain balance while walking and standing.

74

Frontal artery

Supplies blood to the forehead and upper eyelids.

75

Frontal bone

Forms the forehead.

76

Frontals

Anterior (front) portion of the epicranius; muscle of the scalp that raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward, and causes wrinkles across the forehead.

77

Gastrocnemius

Muscle that is attached to the lower rear surface of the heel and pulls the foot down.

78

Glands

Specalized organs that remove certain constituents from the blood to convert them into new substances.

79

Greater auricular nerve

Located at the side of the neck, affects the face, ears, neck, and parotid gland.

80

Greater Occipital Nerve

Located in the back of the head, affects the scalp as far up as the top of the head.

81

Heart

Muscular cone-shaped organ that keeps the blood moving within the circulatory system.

82

Hemoglobin

Iron-containing protein in red blood cells that binds to oxygen.

83

Histology

Science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy.

84

Hormones

Secretions produced by one of the endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream or body fluid to another part of the body to stimulate a specific activity.

85

Humerus

Uppermost and largest bone in the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder.

86

Hyoid Bone

U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles.

87

Inferior labial artery

Supplies blood to the lower lip

88

Infraorbital Artery

Supplies blood to the muscles of the eye.

89

Infraorbital nerve

Affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip, and mouth.

90

Infratrochlear Nerve

Nerve that affects the membrane and skin of the nose.

91

Inhalation

The breathing in of air.

92

Insertion

Part of the muscle at the more movable attachment to the skeleton.

93

Integumentary System

The skin and its accessory organs, such as the oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails.

94

Internal Carotid Artery

Supplies blood to the brain, eyes, eyelids, forehead, nose, and internal ear.

95

Internal Jugular Vein

Vein located at the side of the neck to collect blood from the brain and parts of the face and neck.

96

Joint

Connection between two or more bones of the skeleton.

97

Lacrimal Bones

Small, thin bones located at the front inner wall of the orbits (eye sockets).

98

Latissimus Dorsi

Broad, flat superficial muscle covering the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back, controlling the shoulder blade and the swinging movements of the arm.

99

Levator Anguli Oris

Also known as caninus, a muscle that raises the angle of the mouth and draws it inward.

100

Levator labii superioris

Also known as quadratus labii superioris, a muscle surrounding the upper lip; elevates the upper lip and dilates the nostrils, as in expressing distaste.

101

Liquid tissue

Body tissue that carries food, waste products, and hormones (i.e., blood and lymph).

102

Lungs

Spongy tissues composed of microscopic cells in which inhaled air is exchanged for carbon dioxide.

103

Lymph

Clean yellowish fluid that circulates in the lymph spaces (lymphatic) of the body; carries waste and impurities away from the cells.

104

Lymph Nodes

Special structures found inside the lymphatic vessels that filter lymph.

105

Lymph Vascular System

Body system that acts as an aid to the blood system and consists of the lymph spaces, lymph vessels, and lymph glands.

106

Mandible

Lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face.

107

Mandibular Nerve

Affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip.

108

Masseter

Muscles that coordinate with the temporalis muscles in opening and closing the mouth, and are sometimes referred to as chewing muscles.

109

Maxillae (singular; maxilla)

Bones of the upper jaw.

110

Maxillary Nerve

Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the upper part of the face.

111

Median Nerve

Nerve that supplies the arm and hand.

112

Mental Nerve

Affects the skin of the lower lip and chin.

113

Mentalis

Muscle that elevates the lower lip and raises and wrinkles the skin of the chin.

114

Metabolism

Chemical process taking place in living organisms whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities.

115

Metacarpus

Bones of the palm of the hand; parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges.

116

Metatarsal

One of three subdivisions of the foot comprised of five bones, which are long and slender, like the metacarpal bones of the hand, help make-up the foot. All three subdivisions comprise 26 bones.

117

Middle temporal artery

Supplies blood to the temples.

118

Mitosis

Cells dividing into two new cells (daughter cells); the usual process of cell reproduction of human tissues.

119

Motor Nerves

Nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles.

120

Muscular System

Body system that covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue; contracts and moves various parts of the body.

121

Muscular tissue

Tissue that contracts and moves various parts of the body.

122

Myology

Science of the nature, structure, function, and diseases of the muscles.

123

Nasal bones

Bones that form the bridge of the nose.

124

Nasal nerve

Affects the point and lower side of the nose

125

Nerves

Whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue, through which impulses are transmitted.

126

Nerve tissue

Tissue that controls and coordinates all body functions.

127

Nervous System

Body system composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently.

128

Neuron

Nerve cell; basic unit of the nervous system, consisting of cell body, nucleus dendrites, and axon.

129

Neurology

Science of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system.

130

Nonstriated Muscle

Also called involuntary or smoth muscle; muscle that functions automatically without conscious will.

131

Nucleus

Dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell; plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism.

132

Occipital Artery

Supplies blood to the skin and muscles of the scalp and back of the head up to the crown.

133

Occipital Bone

Hindmost bone of the skull, below the parietal bones; forms the back of the skull above the nape.

134

Occipitalis

Back of the epicranius; muscle that draws the scalp backward.

135

Ophthalmic Nerve

Branch of the fifth cranial nerve that supplies the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp, orbit, eyeball, and nasal passage.

136

Orbicularis oculi muscle

Ring muscle of the eye socket; enables you to close your eyes.

137

Orbicularis oris muscle

Flat band around the upper and lower lips that compresses, contracts, puckers, and wrinkles the lips.

138

Organs

Structures composed of specialized tissues and performing specific functions.

139

Origin

Part of the muscle that does not move; it is attached to the skeleton and is usually part of a skeletal muscle.

140

Os

Bone.

141

Osteology

The study of anatomy, structure, and function of the bones.

142

Palatine bones

Form the floor and outer wall of the nose, root of the mouth, and floor of the orbits.

143

Parietal Bones

Form the sides and top of the cranium.

144

Parietal Artery

Supplies blood to the side and crown of the head.

145

Patella

Also called the accessory bone, forms the knee cap joint.

146

Pectoralis major, pectoralis minor

Muscles of chest that assist the swinging movements of the arm.

147

Pericardium

Double-layered membranous sac enclosing the heart.

148

Peripheral Nervous System

Systems of nerves and ganglia that connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system; it has both sensory and motor nerves.

149

Peroneus Brevis

Muscle that originates on the lower surface of the fibula. It bends the foot down and out.

150

Peroneus longus

Muscle that covers the outer side of the calf and inverts the foot and turns it outward.

151

Phalanges

Bones of the fingers or toes (singular:phalanx).

152

Physiology

Study of the functions or activities performed by the body's structures.

153

Plasma

Fluid part of the blood and lymph that carries food and secretions to the cells.

154

Platelets

Blood cells that aid in the forming of clots.

155

Platysma Muscle

Broad muscle extending from the chest and shoulder muscles to the side of the chin; responsible for lowering the lower jaw and lip

156

Popliteal artery

Divides into two separate arteries known as the anterior tibial (TIB-ee-al) and the posterior tibial. The anterior tibial goes to the foot and becomes the dorsalis pedis which supplies the foot with blood.

157

Posterior Auricular Artery

Supplies blood to the scalp, the area behind and above the ear, and the skin behind the ear.

158

Posterior Auricular Nerve

Affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull.

159

Posterior Tibial Artery

See "popliteal artery."

160

Procerus

Covers the bridge of the nose, lowers the eyebrows, and causes wrinkles across the bridge of the nose.

161

Pronators

Muscles that turn the hand inward so that the palm faces downward.

162

Protoplasm

Colorless jelly-like substance found inside cells in which food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water are present.

163

Pulmonary Circulation

Blood circulation from heart to lungs to be purified.

164

Radial Artery

Artery that supplies blood to the thumb side of the armm and the back of the hand

165

Radial Nerve

Supplies the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand.

166

Radius

Smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb.

167

Red blood cells

Blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs to the body cells.

168

Reflex

Automatic nerve reaction to a stimulus that involves the movement of specific muscles as a response to impulses carried along a motor neuron to a muscle, causing a spontaneous reaction.

169

Reproductive system

Body system responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring.

170

Respiration

Act of breathing; the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the lungs and within each cell.

171

Respiratory System

Body system consisting of the lungs and air passages; enables breathing, supplying the body with oxygen and eliminating carbon dioxide wastes.

172

Ribs

Twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax.

173

Risorius

Muscle of the mouth that draws the corner of the mouth out and back, as in grinning.

174

Saphenous Nerve

Supplies impulses to the skin of the inner side of the leg and foot.

175

Scapula

One of a pair of shoulder blades; a large, flat, triangular bone of the shoulder.

176

Sensory (afferent) nerves

Nerves that carry impulses or messages from the sense organs to the brain, where sensations of touch, cold, heat, sight, hearing, taste, smell, pain, and pressure are experienced.

177

Serratus Anterior

Muscle of the chest that assists in breathing and in raising the arm.

178

sKELETAL sYSTEM

Physical foundation of the body, comprised of 206 bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by movable and immovable joints.

179

Smaller Occipital Nerve

Located at the base of the skull, affects the scalp and muscles behind the ear.

180

Soleus

Muscle that originates at the upper portion of the fibula and bends the foot down.

181

Sphenoid Bone

Joins all of the bones of the cranium together.

182

Spinal cord

The portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down to the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected by the spinal column.

183

Sternocleidomatoideus

Muscle of the neck that lowers and rotates the head.

184

Sternum

Breastbone; flat bone that forms the ventral (front) support of the ribs.

185

Striated muscle

Also called voluntary or skeletal muscle; muscle that is consciously controlled.

186

Submental Artery

Supplies blood to the chin and lower lip.

187

Superficial peroneal nerve

A nerve that extends down the leg, just under the skin, suupplying impulses to the muscles and the skin of the leg, as well as to the skin and toes on the top of the foot.

188

Superficial Temporal Artery

Artery that supplies blood to the muscles of the front, side, and top of the head.

189

Superior labial artery

Supplies blood to the upper lip and region of the nose.

190

Supinator

Muscle of the forearm that rotates the radius outward and the palm upward.

191

Supraorbital Artery

Supplies blood to the upper eyelid and forehead.

192

Supraorbital Nerve

Affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrow, and upper eyelid.

193

Supratrochlear Nerve

Affects the skin between the eyes and upper side of the nose.

194

Sural Nerve

Supplies impulses to the skin on the outer side and back of the foot and leg.

195

Systematic Circulation

Circulation of blood from the heart throughout the body and back again to the heart; also called general circulation.

196

Talus

One of three bones that comprise the ankle joint. The other two bones are the tibia and fibula.

197

Tarsal

One of the three subdivisions of the foot comprised of seven bones (talus, calcaneous, navicular, three cuneiform bones, and the cuboid). All three subdivisions comprise 26 bones.

198

Temporal Bone

Form the sides of the head in the ear region.

199

Temporal Nerve

Affects the muscles of the temple, side of the forehead, eyebrow, eyelid, and upper part of the cheek.

200

Temporalis

Temporal muscle; one of the muscles involved in mastication (chewing).

201

Thorax

The chest; elastic, bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other internal organs.

202

Tibia

The larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. The tibia may be visualized as a "bump" on the big-toe-side of the ankle.

203

Tibial Nerve

A division of the sciatic neerve that passes behind the knee. It subdivides and supplies impulses to the knee, the muscles of the calf, the skin of the leg, and the sole, heel, and underside of the toes.

204

Tibialis Anterior

Muscle that covers the front of the shin. It bends the foot upward and inward.

205

Tissue

Collection of similar cells that perform a particular function.

206

Transverse Facial Artery

Supplies blood to the skin and masseter.

207

Trapezius

Muscle that covers the back of the neck and upper and middle region of the back; rotates and controls swinging movements of the arm

208

Triangularis

Muscle extending alongside the chin that pulls down the corner of the mouth.

209

Tricep

Large muscle that covers the entire back of the upper arm and extends the forearm.

210

Turbinal Bones

Thin layers of spongy bone on either of the outer walls of the nasal depression.

211

Ulna

Inner and larger bone of the forearm, attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger.

212

Ulnar Artery

Artery that supplies blood to the muscle of the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.

213

Ulnar Nervve

Nerve that affects the little finger side of the arm and palm of the hand.

214

Valves

Structures that temporarily close a passage, or permit blood flow in one direction only.

215

Veins

Thin-walled blood vessels that are less elastic than arteries; veins contain cup-like valves to prevent backflow and carry impure blood from the various capillaries back to the heart and lungs.

216

Ventricle

The lower thick-walled chambers of the heart.

217

Vomer bone

Flat thin bone that forms part of the nasal septum.

218

White blood cells

Blood cells that perform the function of destroying disease-causing microorganisms.

219

Zygomatic/Malar Bones

Form the prominene of the cheeks; cheekbones.

220

Zygomatic Nerve

Affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek.

221

Zygomaticus

Muscles extending from the zygomatic bone to the angle of the mouth; elevate the lip, as in laughing.