review folder #1

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1

indentured servants

a person who came to america and was placed under contract to work for another over a period of time, usually seven years, especially during the 17th and 18th century.

2

triangle trade

a pattern of colonial commerce in which slaves were bought on the African gold coast with new England rum and then traded in the west indies for sugar or molasses which was brought back to new England to be manufactured into rum.

3

dominion of new england

was and administrative union of English colonies in the new England region of north america

4

great migration

was a movement of 1.3 million African-Americans out of the south to the north, mid-west and west between 1910 to 1930. African Americans moved to free themselves from fascism, and for better opportunities in both education for children and employment and land.

5

jamestown

it was the first permanent English settlement in america, it was founded in may 1607 and named after the monarch James I, it became the capital of Virginia after 1619.

6

fundamental orders

Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.

7

nathaniel bacon

was the leader of bacons rebellion in colonial virginia, was an aristocrat.

8

dominion of new england

was and administrative union of English colonies in the new England region of north america.

9

new england confederation

was a group formed in 1643 between Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven, it was created to provide a united defense against the Dutch, french, and native Americans along with settling boundary disputes.

10

Bacon's Rebellion

an unsuccessful uprising by frontiersmen in Virginia in 1676, led by Nathaniel Bacon against the colonial government in Jamestown.

11

great Awakening

the series of religious revivals among Protestants in the American colonies, especially in New England lastind from about 1725 to 1770.

12

Mercatilism

the theory and system of political economy prevailing in Europe after the decline of feudalism based on national policies of accumulating bullion establishing colonies and a merchant marine and developing industry and mining to attain a favorable balance of trade.

13

Enlightment

a philosophical movement of the 18th century that emphasized the use of reason to scrutinize previously accepted doctrines and traditions and that brought about many humanitarian reforms

14

navigation acts

any of several acts of Parliament between 1651 and 1847 designed primarily to expand British trade and limit trade by British colonies with countries that were rivals of Great Britain.

15

salutary neglet

was an undocumented British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant o keep the American colonies obedient to England

16

french and Indian war

the war in America in which France and its Indian allies opposed England, ended by Treaty of Paris in 1763

17

proclamation line of 1763

the British crown's attempt to separate white settlement from Indian country after the french and Indian War, draw at the crest of the Appalachians, the line was a failure as colonial squatters swarmed into the Ohio Valley.

18

Saratoga

a former village of eastern new York on the west back of the Hudson River east of saratoga Springs, the defeat and surrender of Gen which marked the end of the hard fought saratoga campaign and was a major turning point in the American revolution

19

declaratory act

declaration by the British Parliament that accompanied repeal of the Stamp Act, it stated that Parliament's authority was the same in America as in Britain and asserted Parliaments authority to make laws binding on the American colonies.

20

stamp act

an act passed by the British Parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American Colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents; opposition by the Colonies resulted in the repeal of the act in 1766

21

declaration of independence

the proclamation made by the second American Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which asserted the freedom and independence of the 13 Colonies from Great Britain

22

first continental congress

was a convention of delegates form twelve colonies that met on September at Carpenters hall in Philadelphia early in the American revolution.

23

second continental congress

was a convention of delegates for the thirteen colonies that started meeting on may 1775 in Philadelphia after the American Revolution it succeeded the First continental congress. this managed the colonial war effort and moved towards independence adopting the declaration of independence.

24

land ordinance of 1785

was adopted by the continental congress under the articles of confederation , Congress dint had the power to raise revenue by direct taxation of the inhabitants of the U.S.So the goal was to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original states acquired at the 1783 after the end of the revolutionary war.

25

northwest ordinance of 1787

it created the Northwest territory it established the procedures by which territories were admitted as states to the Union.

26

shay's rebellion

An uprising led by a former militia officer, Daniel Shays, which broke out in western Massachusetts in 1786. Shays's followers protested the foreclosures of farms for debt and briefly succeeded in shutting down the court system. Although the rebellion was easily overcome, it persuaded conservatives of the need for a strong national government and contributed to the movement to draft the constitution.

27

sons of liberty

was a political group made up of American Patriots that originated in pre-independence.

28

committees of correspondence

an inter colonial committee organized 1772 by Samuel Adams in Massachusetts to keep colonists informed of British anti colonial actions and to plan colonial resistance or countermeasures.

29

election of 1800

jefferson and burr each received 73 votes in the electoral college, so the house of representatives had to decide the outcome the house chose jefferson as president as burr as vice president.

30

strict and loose constructionnism

Loose construction-means that the federal government can take reasonable actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid
Strict construction- people who favor strict constitution think that that federal government should do only what the constitution specifically says it can do.

31

federalists

a system of government in wich power is divided between a central political units

32

anti-federalists

one of party opposed to a federative government a party which opposed the adoption of the constitution of the US.

33

Hamilton's financial program

he was the secretary of treasury he created a financial plan that would create a national bank, pay off war debts, and put a tariff on exported goods that would hopefully encourage industrialization in America.

34

jay treaty

was a treaty between the united states and the kingdom of great britain that is credited with averting war, resolving issues remaining since the treaty of paris

35

whiskey rebellion

a revolt in western Pennsylvania in 1794 against a federal excise tax on whiskey

36

xyz affair

an insult to the american delegation when they were supposed to be meeting french foreign minister, talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials adams called "x,y, and z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see talleyrand.

37

alien and sedition acts

A series of laws, passed during the presidency of John Adams at the end of the eighteenth century, that sought to restrict the public activities of political radicals who sympathized with the French Revolution and criticized Adams's Federalist policies. In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, James Madison and Thomas Jefferson wrote the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, which asserted states' rights.

38

Virginia and Kentucky resolutions

Statements of principle adopted by two state legislatures in the 1790s; they affirmed states' rights in response to the federal Alien and Sedition Acts. James Madison wrote the Virginia Resolutions, and Thomas Jefferson wrote the Kentucky Resolutions. Jefferson's draft of the Kentucky Resolutions included the statement that nullification was an appropriate course of action for a state in the face of a dangerous increase in the strength of the federal government. Although the Kentucky legislature approved most of his draft, it did not adopt this statement.

39

1793 proclamation of neutrality

was a formal announcement ussued by united states pres. george washington declaring the nation neutral in the conflict between france and great britain

40

Louisiana purchase

A territory of the western United States extending from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains between the Gulf of Mexico and the Canadian border. It was purchased from France on April 30, 1803, for $15 million and officially explored by the Lewis and Clark expedition (1804-1806)