Final Test

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1

7.2-7.8

normal pH of sperm

2

3.8-4.5

normal pH of vaginal secretions

3

greater than or equal to 2

Lecithin/sphingomyelin ration indicating fetal lung maturity

4

large gram positive rods

gram stain morphology of lactobacillus

5

between arachnoid and pia mater

location of CSF

6

clue cells

formed when numerous bacteria adhere to membranes of epithelial cells; most diagnostic indicator of bacterial vaginosis

7

occult blood

positive is a diagnostic indicator of colorectal cancer

8

lactoferrin

detects activated neutrophils in stool specimen

9

methylene blue

used to detect white blood cells in stool specimen

10

occult blood

used to detect red blood cells in stool specimen

11

2 hours

maximum amount of time a urine specimen can be left at room temperature before major changes begin to take place

12

pH and bacteria

chemicals that are increased in urine stasis

13

protein

chemicals that do not change in urine stasis

14

bilirubin, glucose, ketones, urobilinogen, blood cells, and casts

chemicals that are decreased in urine stasis

15

polarization

requires two filters: below condenser and analyzer between objective and eyepiece; splits into two beams when passing through; identifies birefringent substances such as crystals, fibers, bones, or minerals

16

CCPD calcium pyrophosphate

crystals present in pseudogout;

17

MSU monosodium urate

crystals present in gout

18

CCPD

perpendicular in polarizing microscopy

19

MSU

parallel in polarizing microscopy

20

first morning clean catch

preferred method of specimen collection

21

midstream clean catch

collection method used for bacterial cultures in order to reduce normal flora

22

1.3 million

amount of nephrons per kidney

23

nephron

the functional unit of the kidney

24

glomerulus

location of plasma filtration

25

600-1800mL

amount of urine excreted per day

26

collecting ducts

location of final concentration of urine decided

27

refractometer

tool used to measure specific gravity

28

1.002-1.034

normal specific gravity of urine

29

4.0-8.0

normal pH of urine

30

osmolality

affected by solute number not size or weight; determined in distal and collecting tubules when ADH is present; more accurate

31

proximal convoluted tubule

responsible for most reabsorption

32

loop of Henle

tubular portion of nephron immediately following and continuous with the proximal tubule located in the renal medulla

33

distal convoluted tubule

reabsorption and secretion of small molecules takes place; reabsorption of water to concentrate urine

34

collecting tubule

reabsorption of essential nutrients and water

35

Bowman's capsule

located within the glomerulus

36

anuria

absence of urine

37

oliguria

significant decrease less than 400mL per day

38

polyuria

a significant amount of urine greater than 3L per day

39

urea, chloride and sodium

three most prevalent solutes

40

urochrome

gives urine its characteristic yellow color

41

diabetes mellitus

condition leading to sweet or fruity odor of urine

42

uroeryhtrin

gives urine brick dust appearance

43

isothenuria

urine specific gravity is fixed at 1.010

44

1.000

specific gravity of distilled water

45

1.020

specific gravity of sodium chloride

46

nitroprusside

chemical reaction of ketone reagent pad

47

starving and vomiting and other lack of carb utilization

conditions in which ketones are found in urine

48

ictotest

detects bilirubin

49

SSA

detects protein

50

Acetest

detects ketones

51

Clinitest

detects sugars and reducing substances

52

ascorbic acid/vitamin C

high amounts can interfere and cause false positives

53

albumin

protein the reagent strip pad is most sensitive to

54

pseudoperoxidase

chemical reaction to detect blood

55

leukocyte esterase

azurophilic granules of leukocytes form and couple with diazonium salt

56

nitrite

forms diazonium salt which couples with compound in pad to produce azo dye; color change white to pink

57

glucose oxidase

double sequential; oxidizes glucose to form hydrogen peroxide and gluconic acid; peroxidase oxidizes chromogen in pad resulting in color change; specific for glucose

58

bilirubin

diazo reaction; diazonium salt in pad to form azo brown

59

hyaline

most common cast

60

distal and collecting tubules

where casts are formed

61

concentration, pH and flow of urine

factors that contribute to crystal formation

62

triple phosphate

coffin lid crystal

63

ghost cells

RBCs in hypotonic (dilute) urine

64

glitter cells

WBCs in hypotonic urine

65

degenerated blebs

WBCs in hypertonic urine

66

crentaed

RBCs in hypertonic (concentrated) urine

67

calcium carbonate

dumbbells

68

cholesterol

clear, thin parallelogram plates with notched corners

69

hypertonic

concentrated urine

70

hypotonic

dilute urine

71

amorphous urates

present in acidic urine; no clinical significance; dusting

72

acid urate crystals

salts; yellow-brown balls or spheres

73

uric acid

rhombic, diamond, or cube, barrel, or rosettes

74

monosodium urate

color-less to light-yellow slender, pencil-like prisms

75

calcium oxalate

most frequently observed crystals in human urine

76

calcium oxalate

ethylene glycol or ascorbic acid; envelopes

77

amorphous phosphate

alkaline urine; precipitate dusting

78

ammonium biurate

thorny apple appearance; seen after storage or in fresh renal tubular damage urine

79

calcium carbonate

tiny-colorless granular crystals in pairs or tetrads

80

bilirubin

small clusters of fine needles

81

cystine

colorless hexagonal plates uneven sides; acidic urine

82

upper UTI

casts commonly seen with increased leukocytes and bacteria

83

lower UTI

leukocytes and bacteria present in urine without casts

84

heavy proteinuria

associated with nephrotic syndrome

85

acute renal failure

sudden decrease in glomerular filtration rate; high mortality

86

chronic renal failure

progressive loss of renal function; hypertrophy of remaining healthy nephron

87

PKU

associated with musty urine

88

diabetes insipidus

polyuria associated with decreased ADH

89

galactosemia

screened for in newborns and tested with reducing substances tablet test

90

maple sugar urine disease

caramelized sugar odor of urine; mental impairment and spasticity in infants

91

diabetes mellitus type 1

insulin dependent diabetes; polyuria, ketonuria, and rapid weight loss

92

diabetes mellitus type 2

non insulin dependent diabetes; pancreas has decreased or insufficient insulin synthesis

93

porphyrias

hereditary defect of heme synthesis pathway; turns urine reddish; increased porphyrins and porphyrin precursors

94

MS

oligoclonal bands present in CSF but absent in serum

95

0.3-0.7

CSF to IgG index indicated acceptable blood brain barrier

96

CSF/Serum albumin index

used to assess permeability of blood brain barrier

97

monocytes and lymphocytes

white blood cells normal in small amounts in CSF

98

between arachnoid and pia mater

located of CSF

99

exudates

body fluids that are cloudy, various colors, can form clots

100

effusion

excess of fluid

101

centesis

performed to get rid of excess bodily fluid

102

chemistry, serology, and immunology

CSF#1

103

microbiology

CSF#2

104

cell counts and cytology

CSF#3

105

gram stain

look for bacteria and fungi

106

india ink

for Cryptococcus neoformans

107

acid-fast stain

for TB meningitis

108

Wright's stain

for ameba Naegleria fowleri

109

culture

to detect bacterial cause

110

detection of microbial antigens

to assist in identifying bacterial and fungal antigens in CSF