Chapter 24 Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation Exam
1) The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available
fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.
C) acetyl CoA
2) Which of the choices below is not a fate of carbohydrate taken
into the body?
A) ATP production
C) amino acid synthesis
D) conversion to a nucleic acid
3) Dietary fats are important because they ________.
A) keep blood pressure normal
B) help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins
C) contribute significantly to the health of the skin
D) help prevent the common cold
4) Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance
in the body because it ________.
A) is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
B) helps provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs
C) helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation
D) enters the glycolytic pathway without being altered
5) Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?
A) derived from meat and fish only
B) meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet
C) derived only from legumes and other plant material
D) must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth
6) The term metabolism is best defined as ________.
A) the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats
B) a measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories
C) the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day
D) biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy
7) The term metabolic rate reflects the ________.
A) energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities
B) loss of organic molecules in urine
C) energy needed to make all organic molecules
D) loss of energy to perspiration
8) When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in
the urine is mostly________.
C) acetyl CoA
D) ketone bodies
9) It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in
vitamins because ________.
A) vitamins provide protection against the common cold
B) very few foods contain vitamins
C) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
D) all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization
10) Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by which of the
A) dehydrogenases and oxidases
B) kinases and phosphorylases
C) phosphatases and kinases
D) synthetases and lipases
11) Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular
respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?
A) glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
B) gluconeogenesis, Krebs cycle, lipolysis
C) lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation
D) glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain
12) Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.
A) carbohydrate utilization increases
B) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
C) structural proteins are used as a potential energy source
D) ketone bodies are formed
13) Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.
A) causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies
B) builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state
C) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
D) elevates glucagon levels
14) The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.
A) determine the amount of heat needed by the human body
B) provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals
C) efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body
D) break down food molecules and generate ATP
15) The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and
fatty acids is known as ________.
B) fat utilization
16) Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during
A) oxidative phosphorylation
B) substrate-level phosphorylation
C) oxidation-reduction reactions
D) oxidation reactions
17) Lipogenesis occurs when ________.
A) there is a shortage of fatty acids
B) glucose levels drop slightly
C) excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane
D) cellular ATP and glucose levels are high
18) Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.
19) Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino
acid is ________.
A) transferred to acetyl CoA
B) converted to urea
C) transferred to a keto acid
D) converted to ammonia
20) Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.
A) postabsorptive state
B) absorptive state
C) starvation period
D) period when the metabolic rate is lowest
21) Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation
of the heat-promoting center?
A) release of epinephrine
B) sympathetic sweat gland activation
C) increase in ADH production
D) vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels
22) Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.
A) glycogen is broken down to release glucose
B) glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors
C) glycogen is formed
D) glucose is converted into carbon dioxide and water
23) Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the
A) conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water
B) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
C) conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water
D) formation of sugar
24) What is the outcome of ketosis?
A) water retention and edema
B) metabolic acidosis
C) metabolic alkalosis
D) glycogen buildup
25) Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?
A) Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.
B) Catabolic processes exceed anabolic ones.
C) No metabolism occurs.
D) Only glucose metabolism occurs.
26) In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet,
proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except
A) production of energy
B) production of some hormones
C) production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies
D) formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes
27) The most abundant dietary lipids are ________.
C) fatty acids
28) Loss of heat in the form of infrared waves is termed ________.
29) Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the
A) growth hormone
B) thyroid hormone
30) Prostaglandins play a role in ________.
A) skeletal muscle contraction
B) control of blood volume
C) noninflammatory responses
D) control of blood pressure
31) Which of the following is the most important function of the
A) carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
B) synthesis of bile salts
C) processing of drugs and hormones and activation of vitamin D
D) protein metabolism
32) As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive
state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other
organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.
33) In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids
and ________ are converted to glucose.
34) In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as
________ in the oxidative state.
B) pyruvic acid
D) oxaloacetic acid
35) Which of the choices below is not a mechanism of heat production?
A) vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels
D) enhanced thyroxine release
36) Heat-loss mechanisms do not include ________.
A) reducing activity
B) the evaporation of sweat
C) behavior measures such as wearing light, loose clothing
D) vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels
37) The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important
hormonal factor in determining BMR.
38) When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large
amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________.
A) amino acids
B) fatty acids
D) lactic acid
39) Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?
A) the way an individual metabolizes fat
B) the way skeletal muscles break down glycogen
C) the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body
D) an individual's body weight
40) The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric
intake is that ________.
A) muscle mass and metabolism decline with age
B) their appetite begins to diminish
C) they have a higher metabolic rate and do not need large amounts of food
D) they spend most of the day at rest, and their food will quickly turn to fat
41) Which of the choices below is not a major route of heat exchange?
42) Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect
A) The amino acid pool is the body’s total supply of amino acids in the body’s proteins.
B) Fats and carbohydrates are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy.
C) Amino acids can be used to supply energy only after being converted to a carbohydrate intermediate.
D) Excess carbohydrate and fat can be stored as such, whereas excess amino acids are oxidized for energy or converted to fat or glycogen for storage.
43) Which of the following molecules are considered key molecules at
A) glucose-6-phosphate, pyruvic acid, acetyl CoA
B) glucose-6-phosphate, lactic acid, acetyl CoA
C) acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, ATP
D) ATP, pyruvic acid, lactic acid
44) Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of
energy per gram when metabolized?
B) vitamins and minerals
C) foods and beverages high in caffeine
45) Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?
A) electron transport
C) Krebs cycle
D) formation of malic acid from fumaric acid
46) Which of the following is not true of beta oxidation?
A) It occurs in the mitochondrion.
B) Every second carbon is reduced.
C) It involves the anabolism of fats.
D) Fatty acids are broken into acetic acid fragments.
47) Select the correct statement about proteins.
A) Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids.
B) Proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present.
C) Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
D) Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis.
48) Oxidation reduction reactions ________.
A) utilize hydrogenases
B) may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons
C) are rarely coupled together
D) occur via the gain of hydrogen or the loss of oxygen
49) What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases
its activity, produces motion, or does work?
B) beta oxidation
C) cellular respiration
50) Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the
A) glycogenolysis in the liver
B) lipolysis in adipose tissues and the liver
C) absorption of glucose from the GI tract
D) catabolism of cellular protein
51) Which of the following is correct?
A) Most of the ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.
B) Oxidation of FADH2 eventually yields four ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.
C) Glycolysis relies on substrate-level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway.
D) Most ATP from cellular respiration are produced directly in the Krebs cycle.
52) Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of
A) corn, cottonseed oil, soy oil, and wheat germ
B) lima beans, kidney beans, nuts, and cereals
C) egg yolk, fish roe, and grains
D) eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish
53) Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use
of amino acids include ________.
A) adequate essential amino acids
B) adequate fat calories to provide adequate ATP formation
C) excessive amounts of protein in the diet
D) ammonia combining with oxygen to form urea
54) When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level
and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may
B) exhibit vasodilation of skin vessels
C) perspire heavily
55) Glucose can be obtained from ________.
B) triglyceride anabolism
C) protein anabolism
56) Which of the following is not a function of LDLs?
A) transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver
B) regulate cholesterol synthesis in tissue cells
C) make cholesterol available to tissue cells for membrane or hormone synthesis
D) influence cholesterol synthesis in tissue cells
57) Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?
A) Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.
B) It is a condition usually caused by having a diet low in fish and meat.
C) A negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining homeostasis.
D) It occurs when amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and carried to the bloodstream.
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