Judith Sargent Murray (BHATIA)
Publisher of a series of essays that aruged in favor of education for women saying it amkes women confident and essentially equals to men.
Mary Wolstonecraft (BHATIA)
English Feminist who was revered by women across the nation until she was exposed as a unwed mother.
Eli Whitney (BHATIA)
Graduate of Yale who created the Cottin gin that seperted the cotton from the seed. Because of his invention he spurred a large cotton benefit in the economy.
Known as Mad Anthony. He created 2 new military camps right after St. Clair's defeat. He also led a series of skirmishes against Shawnee, Deleare, and Miamai Indians. This resulted into the Battle of Fallen Timbers which turned out to be an enormous victory for Americans.
Toussaint L’Ouverture (BHATIA)
Leader of Slaves in Hatian Revolution who allied with Spain. He helped to drive out from France and fought for slaves rights.
Revolutionary War debt (BHATIA)
After turns in the economy, it was likely that Americans could pay off their substancial war debt. Until Hamilton suggested that the debt be funded.
Bill of Rights (BHATIA)
Document created to enforce/protect the rights of the people from the government's intervention. Examples of rights: freedom of speech, etc.
Republican motherhood (BHATIA)
The new role of Women to raise children as citiznes of the nation. Advanced the role of women. In marrige women were no longer bound to thier husbands as a duty but more so virtue. Women were to put the well being of their families first.
Hamilton’s Reports (PENG)
Hamilton’s medium of addressing the debt problem and his plan of attack; inspired controversy amongst not only the President’s Cabinet (division among the founding fathers) but also the state governments (who were totally pissed)
Debt assumption (ANDERSON)
Proposed by Hamilton, this meant that the federal government assumed the debts of all the states on top of its own. Hamilton encouraged the existence of a healthy federal debt, asserting that it reflected faith in the federal government. News of this assumption caused a flurry of speculation in certificates of debt that had originally been issued to Revolutionary War soldiers.
Debt redemption (ANDERSON)
Hamilton, even though he persuaded the federal government to assume state debts, did not intend to fully repay all debts at once. He planned to fund them fully; however, he felt that if speculators had financial stake in the success of the new country, they would be more likely to keep their wealth in America.
Bank of the U.S.-GANSKE
In order to take care of the national debt, Alexander Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury, established the first bank which was believed necessary to stabilize and improve the nation's credit post-war. While Jefferson and Madison opposed his efforts because they believed the bank was unconstitutional, Hamilton stated that the Constitution was not in place to restrict the country from moving forwards, and therefore was passed.
Washington, D.C. (Federal City) (ANDERSON)
This city was planned, reflecting the proliferation of Enlightenment ideas during that time period. It was specifically planned to house the federal government and insulate it from the influence of any state.
Whiskey Rebellion- GANSKE
The Whiskey Rebellion was a tax protest in the backcountry of Pennsylvania. Because citizens used Whiskey barrels as a type of currency, having a tax on it was inconvenient, leading to them rebelling against the government. This left George Washington and Alexander Hamilton with no choice but to make a spectacle out of the situation, and sent federal troops to settle the qualms- which indeed crushed the revolt.
Treaty of Greenville-GANSKE
Between the Western Confederacy and the Native Americans, it ended the Northwest Indian War. After the massive loss for the Indians from the Battle at Fallen Timbers, the Native Americans settled on giving America large portions of Ohio in compensation, and established the Greenville Treaty Line (which was usually disregarded by settlers causing even more conflict).
George Washington made this formal announcement, declaring neutrality in the conflict between Britain and France. The document threatened any citizen who helped any other country at war against the loyalty of America, and led to the Neutrality Act of 1794.
Jay's Treaty was a treaty between Britain and the United States that attempted to avert war and resolve issues left unsolved by the Treaty of Paris which ended the American Revolution. The treaty stated that the British army would withdraw from the Northwest Territory, and that the issues of wartime debts and the boundary line between America and Canada would be settled. In exchange for limitation on the American exportation of cotton, the Americans were granted some rights to trade with the British in Caribbean colonies. Even though Jefferson and his supporters feared the treaty because it would promote aristocracy and undercut republicanism, the treaty eventually garnered a 2/3 majority in Senate and was therefore ratified.
The Haitian Revolution was a period of conflict in the French colony, which ended with the formation of the Haitian Republic. This successful attempt of slaves achieving their independence worried American slaveholders, and it was the most successful slave rebellion in history.
This was an American political party that had its roots in the supporters of the Constitution. It supported commercial expansion of the US, as opposed to the agrarian vision held by Jefferson and many Republicans.
This party gained an advantage over the Federalists in the beginning of the 1800s, and the Federalists never regained the ground that they lost. However, despite housing a majority in Congress, this party was deeply divided and was able to come to few agreements.
The XYZ Affair was when three French agents demanded compensation from the United States in order to re-establish diplomatic relations. It was a major cause of the Quasi-War between France and the United States, and resulted from the French retaliation towards the Jay Treaty.
The Quasi-War was a war fought between France and the United States, which began when America passed legislation that allowed trade between Britain and the United States, which angered France. Also, when America refused to continue paying off debt on the grounds of the French Revolution, the government became furious. In return, France began seizing American trading ships and refused to negotiate with Congress.
Alien and Sedition Acts-GANSKE
Signed by John Adams, this set of four bills passed in 1798 in order to guard against the threat of anarchy. While the Alien Act authorized the president to deport any resident alien considered dangerous to the peace and safety to the United States, the Sedition act made it a crime to publish scandalous and false writing against the government and other officials.
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions- GANSKE
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were political statements which argued that the states had the right and duty to declare any unconstitutional acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution. Written by Jefferson and Madison, they argued for states rights instead of federal rights.