Chapter 27 The Reproductive System / clinical questions / fill in the blank exam questions / test bank
1) The ________ plexus of testicular veins assists in cooling the testis.
2) Surgical cutting of the ductus deferens as a form of birth control is called a(n) ________.
3) The erectile tissue around the urethra is the corpus ________.
4) The midpiece of the sperm tail contains mostly ________.
5) The ________ cells of the testis nourish the newly formed sperm cells.
6) The suspensory ligament and mesovarium are part of the ________ ligament.
7) A follicle with only a small antrum in it would be classified as a(n) ________ follicle.
8) The small opening of the uterus that sperm would first enter is called the ________.
Answer: external os
9) The portion of the uterine endometrium that is not sloughed off every month is called the ________.
Answer: stratum basalis
10) ________ is caused by Treponema pallidum.
11) What are some risk factors for developing breast cancer?
Answer: Some of the risk factors for developing breast cancer are: (1) early onset of menses and late menopause; (2) first pregnancy late in life or no pregnancies at all; (3) familial history of breast cancer; (4) postmenopausal hormone replacement.
12) What is the name given to the female homologue to the penis?
Answer: The female clitoris is homologous to the glans penis of the male. It is homologous in that it contains dorsal erectile columns and can become swollen with blood during tactile stimulation.
13) Describe the composition and functional roles of semen.
Answer: Semen is a fluid mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions (prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands). The liquid provides a transport medium for nutrients and contains chemicals that protect the sperm and facilitate their movements.
14) Explain the function of the myometrium and endometrium.
Answer: The myometrium plays an active role during childbirth when it contracts rhythmically to force the baby out of the mother's body. The endometrium is the innermost lining of the uterus where the embryo implants and stays for the rest of its development.
15) What is the purpose of the male bulbourethral gland?
Answer: Because it releases its contents prior to ejaculation, its function is probably to neutralize the acids in the urethra.
16) What is the physiological importance of the fact that the male testes descend to reside in the scrotal sac?
Answer: The male testes descend into the scrotal sac so that a fairly constant intrascrotal temperature is maintained. Failure of the testes to descend results in sterility, because production of viable spermatozoa requires a temperature several degrees lower than normal body temperature.
17) Ovulation occurs when the oocyte is released into the peritoneal cavity. By what means does it usually enter the uterine tube?
Answer: Fimbriae, which drape over the ovary, become very active close to the time of ovulation and undulate to create currents in the peritoneal fluid. These currents usually carry the oocyte to the uterine tube, where it begins its journey toward the uterus.
18) At what point is the sex of the embryo determined, and what determines it?
Answer: Genetic sex is determined at the instant the genes of a sperm combine with those of an ovum. The determining factor is the sex chromosomes each gamete contains.
1) Teresa has been complaining of severe abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, and a low-grade fever. What might be the doctor's diagnosis, and how should the condition be treated?
Answer: The symptoms sound like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a collective term for any extensive bacterial infection of the pelvic organs, especially the uterus, uterine tubes, or ovaries. PID is most commonly caused by the bacterium that causes gonorrhea, but any bacterium can trigger the infection. Early treatment should include antibiotics (tetracycline or penicillin).
2) A 38-year-old male is upset about his low sperm count and visits a "practitioner" who commonly advertises his miracle cures of sterility. The practitioner is a quack who treats conditions of low sperm count with megadoses of testosterone. Although his patients experience a huge surge in libido, their sperm count is even lower after hormone treatment. Explain why.
Answer: Megadoses of testosterone would inhibit hypothalamic release of GnRH and may act directly on the anterior pituitary to inhibit gonadotropin (FSH) release. Spermatogenesis is inhibited in the absence of FSH stimulation.
3) Mr. and Mrs. John Takahama, a young couple who had been trying unsuccessfully to have a family for years, underwent a series of tests with a fertility clinic to try to determine the problem. Mr. Takahama was found to have a normal sperm count, and the sperm morphology and motility were normal. (1) If his count had been low, what type of information should be collected to determine the cause of the low count? Mrs. Takahama's history sheet revealed that she had two episodes of PID during her early 20s, and the time span between successive menses ranged from 21 to 30 days. She claimed that her family was "badgering" her about not giving them grandchildren and that she was frequently despondent. A battery of hormonal tests was ordered, and Mrs. Takahama was asked to perform a cervical mucus test and daily basal temperature recordings. Additionally, gas was blown through her uterine tubes to determine their patency. Her tubes proved to be closed and she was determined to be anovulatory. (2) What do you suggest might have caused the closing of her tubes? Which of the tests done or ordered would have revealed her anovulatory condition?
Answer: (1) If his count had been low, he should have been checked for anatomical obstructions or hormonal imbalances. (2) Her tubes were probably scarred by PID. Hormonal testing and the daily basal temperature recordings would have indicated her anovulatory condition.
4) Debbye has been having pelvic pain, especially during her monthly period, for many months. She has been to several doctors and they all tell her that she is just experiencing extra-heavy monthly flows. The tests all turn up negative. She has been trying to conceive but nothing works. What could the problem be?
Answer: Debbye has endometriosis. This problem is very difficult to diagnose and every case is different. Generally it requires laparoscopic views to find the problem. Endometriosis can cause sterility by blocking the uterine tubes, which prevents the sperm from getting to the egg or the egg from getting to the uterus.
5) Based on your knowledge of how the prostate encircles part of the urethra, what are two clinical manifestations of an enlarged prostate?
Answer: Awakening at night to void caused by decreasing bladder capacity from an enlarging prostate; a small urinary stream; hesitancy in starting the urinary stream; dribbling at the end of voiding
6) Because of the resurgence of cervical cancer in young women, what important information should a nurse share with young women at a local health fair?
Answer: There is a risk of cervical cancer with an increase in the number of sexual partners and with early incidence of first intercourse. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection also appears to increase the risk of cervical cancer. A thorough yearly gynecological examination, including a Pap test, should be encouraged. The women should be taught to report to their physician any abnormal bleeding or drainage.
7) Explain the purpose of tamoxifen in breast cancer treatment.
Answer: Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors and inhibits estrogen-mediated tumor growth.
8) What are the possible complications a patient may have after a radical mastectomy?
Answer: The entire breast is removed along with underlying muscles, fascia, and associated lymph nodes. Therefore, the patient might experience lymphedema related to edema on the operative side. The patient may also experience problems with arm function due to the removal of muscles. The patient might experience muscle shortening and decreased muscle tone of other muscles on the affected side.