active/inactive form of enzyme are called
what activates an apoenzyme?
apoenzyme (protein only structure) needs to bind to either cofactor, coenzyme, or both.
CoA, NAD+ and FAD are all examples of
coenzyme (like a substrate)
pyruvic acid goes through_______ to become______ which combines with______ to make_______
decarboxylation, acetate, CoA, Acetyl CoA
what does oxidation reduction mean in terms of organic molecules?
oxidation: gaining Oxygen bonds (=losing H bonds)
reduction: gaining Hydrogen bonds (=Losing O bonds)
what is lithotrophs?
microbes that acquire e- from inorganic substances like Fe2+, H2.
2 starting reactants and 1 product in first stage of Kreb cycle
oxaloacetic acid, acetyl CoA, citric acid
definition of chemiosmosis
use of ion gradient to generate ATO
4 types of carrier molecules in ETC
flavoprotein, Ubiquionones (aka CoQ), Metal contatining proteins, cytochromes
is ETC a electrical or chemical graident?
neither, it is electrochemical gradient.
describe the glowing bacteria
From FMN (flavoprotein), and with LUCIFERASE, it goes through an alternate chain other than ETC to emit light (transfers e- to O2 during this process)
give the pencil lined paragraphs one last read
NAD+ to NADH is a oxidation or reduction?
in anaerobic respiration, what type of phosphorylation occurs?
both substrate level and oxidative
final e acceptor in fermentation is
cellular organic molecules
ATP produced per glucose in aerobic respiration
38 prokaryotes, 36 eukaryotes (eh this isn't exactly accurate)
THE process you need to remember for lipid catabolism and its product. how many products? what are they?
beta oxidation, 3, join cut off fatty acid with CoA to form Acetyl CoA, NADH,and FADH2
glycerol is converted to______ and enters
enzymes for beta oxidation are located where
cytosol for prok, mitochondria for euk.
describe 2 process in protein catabolism and the outcome
proteolysis with protease, and deamination. the products go to Kreb cycle and deanimanted amino groups are used or excreted
sucrose digested by sucrase yields, lactose digested by lactase yields
glucose, fructose. glucose,galactose
what happens to fructose? to galactose?
converted to F1P and more done, converted to G6p. Both enter glycolysis
uses H2S as source of H
uses succinate fatty acid as source of H
what is the final e- acceptor in alcoholic fermentation? what happens to it?
acetaldehyde, turns into ethanol
acetaldehyde is an example of
pyruvate derivative. the final e- acceptors of all fermentation is pyruvate or pyruvate derivative
two types of photosynthesis (anabolism)
uses something other than water as H source
what does green sulfur bacteria use as its H sourece? what about purple sulfur bacteria?
H2S, succinate (fatty acid)
sacs where bacteriophyll (chlorophyll-like structure for bacteria) located on the plasama membrane (remember prok don't have organized structure, no chlorophyll)
prok and euk example of oxygenic photosynthesizing organisms