The __________ is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal body wall.
Which major process involves the elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus?
Where does the process of segmentation occur?
How would you classify chewing food?
The major means of propelling food through the digestive tract is __________.
Which layer of the alimentary canal is constructed from either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium?
Which layer of the alimentary canal is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis?
Which layer of the alimentary canal contains the nerve supply of the enteric neurons that regulate digestive system activity?
The innermost tissue layer of the alimentary canal is the __________.
The nervous system does not regulate digestive activity.
In a patient suffering from untreated infection-induced peritonitis, an infection in the visceral peritoneum immediately ______.
spreads directly to the parietal peritoneum
Which histological layer of the digestive tract is composed primarily of epithelial tissue?
Which of the following is considered to be an accessory organ of the digestive system?
In cystic fibrosis, blockage of the pancreatic duct by thick mucus will prevent the flow of pancreatic juice into the duodenum; this will directly cause ______.
atrophy of the pancreatic acini
When a baby ingests breast milk, the milk's IgA antibodies may be absorbed into the baby's bloodstream because ______.
many pepsinogen molecules remain unchanged
Which part of the digestive system is the major location for absorption of the end products of digestion?
How are fats absorbed into the blood?
in the form of chylomicrons
The __________ circulation includes all of the major abdominal arteries that serve the digestive organs.
The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
Which of the following are mismatched?
protease: lipid digestion
Proteins are digested into __________.
One of the direct consequences of lactose intolerance is ______.
increased osmotic pressure of the large intestine contents
Which enzymes are responsible for the final chemical breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids?
brush border enzymes
Which of the following propels food residue over large areas of the colon three to four times a day?
What is the function of the bacterial flora that inhabit the large intestine?
Bacterial flora synthesize B-complex vitamins and some of the vitamin K needed by the liver.
Which of the following is the primary function of the large intestine?
The major function of the large intestine is to __________.
Bacteria that reside in the large intestine make vitamin K.
An effective way to medically treat diarrhea would be to use a drug that ______.
inhibits the activity of the myenteric nerve plexus
Which of the following processes occurs only in the large intestine?
Which vitamins are made by the bacteria in the large intestine?
B complex and K vitamins
Which of the following is NOT inhibited by the intestino-intestinal reflex?
The appendix contains masses of lymphoid tissue and therefore has leukocytes capable of attacking bacteria present in the appendix. But during appendicitis, bacteria trapped in the lumen of the appendix are not effectively attacked because ______.
there is an inadequate blood supply to the appendix wall
The formation of diverticula involves, most significantly, the ______.
weakening of the colon's submucosa
What is the function of the soft palate?
The soft palate rises reflexively to close off the nasopharynx when swallowing occurs.
Which of the following is NOT a function of saliva?
Saliva contains enzymes that begin the chemical breakdown of proteins.
Which of the following inhibits salivation?
sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
Which teeth are best suited for cutting or nipping off pieces of food in the permanent dentition?
Saliva does NOT __________.
aid in the chemical digestion of proteins
A person with ankyloglossia would likely have difficulty pronouncing the word ______.
All of the listed responses are correct.
A mumps viral infection of the two parotid glands may ______.
spread to the other salivary glands
Hyposalivation can be treated with a drug that ______.
stimulates muscarinic receptors in salivary gland serous cells
Impacted wisdom teeth is a problem that is never observed in children because ______.
they lack third molar teeth
After root canal therapy, a tooth may become infected again due to poor dental hygiene. The patient might not seek treatment for this newly infected tooth because ______.
the tooth lacks a nerve that would make the patient perceive pain
The __________ guards the entry of food into the stomach.
Gastric juice does not typically cause a burning sensation within the stomach. But reflux of this gastric juice into the esophagus can cause a burning sensation. One reason why this occurs is that the esophagus ______.
secretes mucus that is not identical to stomach mucus
Which of the following components of saliva helps convert food-derived nitrates into nitric oxide (NO)?
bacteria present on the back of the tongue
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the stomach?
The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.
Which digestive process normally occurs only in the mouth?
The pharyngeal-esophageal phase of swallowing is involuntary and is controlled by the swallowing center in the thalamus and lower pons.
Which mesentery helps tether the stomach to the liver?
The mucosa collapses inward when the stomach is empty, forming large folds known as __________.
In the __________ phase of gastric secretion, chyme is moved into the duodenum.
The __________ is the last segment of the small intestine.
Blood draining from the stomach is more alkaline (basic) than blood that serves the stomach.
In a patient suffering from a gastric ulcer caused by Helicobacter pylori, the cells most likely to have been damaged first are the ______.
Before and during vomiting, the emetic center initiates motor responses that involve ______.
the somatic nervous system
All of the listed responses are correct.
What role of the stomach is essential to life?
production of intrinsic factor
What structural modification of the small intestine slows the movement of chyme through the lumen?
Which cell in the small intestine's mucosa is a mucus-secreting cell?
Which cells of the small intestine secrete enterogastrones, such as secretin and cholecystokinin?
Which duct carries bile out of bile ducts in the liver?
common hepatic duct
Which component of bile emulsifies fats?
Which vessel delivers nutrient-rich blood to the liver from the digestive tract?
hepatic portal vein
Which chemical activates the transformation of trypsinogen to trypsin?
What is a major function of pancreatic juice?
neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach
What triggers the release of secretin from the small intestine?
presence of acidic, fatty chyme in the small intestine
Which of the following is NOT a structural modification of the small intestine to increase surface area?
Bile is produced by the __________.
The pancreas secretes __________.
Most digestion and absorption of nutrients occur in the __________.
The liver is able to regenerate even after 50% of its original mass is lost.
Cirrhosis can cause ______.
a bleeding disorder
An obstruction by a gallstone is least likely to occur in the ______.
common hepatic duct
Which organ of the digestive tract is the body's major digestive organ?
What is the major digestive function of the pancreas?
production of digestive enzymes