70 notecards = 18 pages (4 cards per page)
In a single molecule of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to a single oxygen atom by
The slight negative charge at one end of one water molecule is attracted to the slight positive charge of another water molecule. What is this attraction called?
The partial negative charge in a molecule of water occurs because
Sulfur is in the same column of the periodic table as oxygen, but has electronegativity similar to carbon. Compared to water molecules, molecules of H₂S
Water molecules are able to form hydrogen bonds with
Which of the following effects is produced by the high surface tension of water?
Which of the following takes place as an ice cube cools a drink?
A dietary Calorie equals 1 kilocalorie. Which of the following statements correctly defines 1 kilocalorie?
The nutritional information on a cereal box shows that one serving of a dry cereal has 200 kilocalories. If one were to burn one serving of the cereal, the amount of heat given off would be sufficient to raise the temperature of 20 kg of water how many degrees Celsius?
Liquid water's high specific heat is mainly a consequence of the
Which type of bond must be broken for water to vaporize?
Temperature usually increases when water condenses. Which behavior of water is most directly responsible for this phenomenon?
Why does evaporation of water from a surface cause cooling of the surface?
Why does ice float in liquid water?
Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are
One mole (mol) of glucose (molecular mass = 180 daltons) is
How many molecules of glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆ molecular mass = 180 daltons) would be present in 90 grams of glucose?
How many molecules of glycerol (C₃H₈O₃; molecular mass = 92) would be present in 1 L of a 1 M glycerol solution?
When an ionic compound such as sodium chloride (NaCl) is placed in water, the component atoms of the NaCl crystal dissociate into individual sodium ions (Na⁺) and chloride ions (Cl⁻). In contrast, the atoms of covalently bonded molecules (e.g., glucose, sucrose, glycerol) do not generally dissociate when placed in aqueous solution. Which of the following solutions would be expected to contain the greatest number of solute particles (molecules or ions)?
The molar mass of glucose is 180 g/mol. Which of the following procedures should you carry out to make a 1 M solution of glucose?
The molar mass of glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆) is 180 g/mol. Which of the following procedures should you carry out to make a 0.5 M solution of glucose?
You have a freshly prepared 0.1 M solution of glucose in water. Each liter of this solution contains how many glucose molecules?
The molecular weight of water is 18 daltons. What is the molarity of 1 liter of pure water? (Hint: What is the mass of 1 liter of pure water?)
You have a freshly prepared 1 M solution of glucose in water. You carefully pour out a 100 mL sample of that solution. How many glucose molecules are included in that 100 mL sample?
A strong acid like HCl
Which of the following ionizes completely in solution and is considered to be a strong base (alkali)?
A 0.01 M solution of a substance has a pH of 2. What can you conclude about this substance?
A given solution contains 0.0001(10⁻⁴) moles of hydrogen ions [H⁺] per liter. Which of the following best describes this solution?
A solution contains 0.0000001(10⁻⁷) moles of hydroxyl ions [OH⁻] per liter. Which of the following best describes this solution?
What is the pH of a solution with a hydroxyl ion [OH⁻] concentration of 10⁻¹² M?
What is the pH of a 1 millimolar NaOH solution?
Which of the following solutions would require the greatest amount of base to be added to bring the solution to neutral pH?
What is the hydrogen ion [H⁺] concentration of a solution of pH 8?
If the pH of a solution is decreased from 9 to 8, it means that the
If the pH of a solution is increased from pH 5 to pH 7, it means that the
One liter of a solution of pH 2 has how many more hydrogen ions (H⁺) than 1 L of a solution of pH 6?
One liter of a solution of pH 9 has how many more hydroxyl ions (OH⁻) than 1 L of a solution of pH 4?
Which of the following statements is true about buffer solutions?
Buffers are substances that help resist shifts in pH by
One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid (H₂CO₃). Carbonic acid is a weak acid that dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO₃⁻) and a hydrogen ion (H⁺). Thus,
One of the buffers that contribute to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid (H₂CO₃). Carbonic acid is a weak acid that, when placed in an aqueous solution, dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO₃⁻ and a hydrogen ion (H⁺). Thus,
Assume that acid rain has lowered the pH of a particular lake to pH 4.0. What is the hydroxyl ion concentration of this lake?
Research indicates that acid precipitation can damage living organisms by
Consider two solutions: solution X has a pH of 4; solution Y has a pH of 7. From this information, we can reasonably conclude that
If a solution has a pH of 7, this means that
Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is readily soluble in water, according to the equation CO₂ + H₂O ↔ H₂CO₃. Carbonic acid (H₂CO₃) is a weak acid. Respiring cells release CO₂ into the bloodstream. What will be the effect on pH of blood as that blood first comes in contact with respiring cells?
A beaker contains 100 mL of NaOH solution at pH = 13. A technician carefully pours into the beaker 10 mL of HCl at pH = 1. Which of the following statements correctly describes the results of this mixing?
Equal volumes (5 mL) of vinegar from a freshly opened bottle are added to each of the following solutions. After complete mixing, which of the mixtures will have the highest pH?
Increased atmospheric CO₂ concentrations might have what effect on seawater?
How would acidification of seawater affect marine organisms?
One idea to mitigate the effects of burning fossil fuels on atmospheric CO₂ concentrations is to pipe liquid CO₂ into the ocean at depths of 2,500 feet or greater. At the high pressures at such depths, CO₂ is heavier than water. What potential effects might result from implementing such a scheme?
If the cytoplasm of a cell is at pH 7, and the mitochondrial matrix is at pH 8, this means that
Based on your knowledge of the polarity of water molecules, the solute molecule depicted here is most likely
How many grams would be equal to 1 mol of the compound shown in the figure above?
How many grams of the compound in the figure above would be required to make 1 L of a 0.5 M solution?
How many grams of the compound in the figure above would be required to make 2.5 L of a 1 M solution?
A small birthday candle is weighed, then lighted and placed beneath a metal can containing 100 mL of water. Careful records are kept as the temperature of the water rises. Data from this experiment are shown on the graph. What amount of heat energy is released in the burning of candle wax?
Identical heat lamps are arranged to shine on identical containers of water and methanol (wood alcohol), so that each liquid absorbs the same amount of energy minute by minute. The covalent bonds of methanol molecules are nonpolar, so there are no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. Which of the following graphs correctly describes what will happen to the temperature of the water and the methanol?
Which of these molecules would be soluble in water?
Carbon dioxide (CO₂) is readily soluble in water, according to the equation CO₂ + H₂O ↔ H₂CO₃. Carbonic acid (H₂CO₃) is a weak acid. If CO₂ is bubbled into a beaker containing pure, freshly distilled water, which of the following graphs correctly describes the results?
You have two beakers. One contains pure water, the other contains pure methanol (wood alcohol). The covalent bonds of methanol molecules are nonpolar, so there are no hydrogen bonds among methanol molecules. You pour crystals of table salt (NaCl) into each beaker. Predict what will happen.
You have two beakers. One contains a solution of HCl at pH = 1.0. The other contains a solution of NaOH at pH = 13. Into a third beaker, you slowly and cautiously pour 20 mL of the HCl and 20 mL of the NaOH. After complete stirring, the pH of the mixture will be
Many mammals control their body temperature by sweating. Which property of water is most directly responsible for the ability of sweat to lower body temperature?
The bonds that are broken when water vaporizes are
Which of the following is a hydrophobic material?
We can be sure that a mole of table sugar and a mole of vitamin C are equal in their
Measurements show that the pH of a particular lake is 4.0. What is the hydrogen ion concentration of the lake?
Measurements show that the pH of a particular lake is 4.0. What is the hydroxide ion concentration of the lake?
A slice of pizza has 500 kcal. If we could burn the pizza and use all the heat to warm a 50-L container of cold water, what would be the approximate increase in the temperature of the water? (Note: A liter of cold water weighs about 1 kg.)
How many grams of acetic acid (C₂H₄O₂) would you use to make 10 L of a 0.1 M aqueous solution of acetic acid? (Note: The atomic masses, in daltons, are approximately 12 for carbon, 1 for hydrogen, and 16 for oxygen.)