158 notecards = 40 pages (4 cards per page)
What are the functions of the cardiovascular system?
The heart and blood vessels work together to efficiently pump blood to all body tissue.
What is the function of blood, and what kind of tissue is blood?
transports oxygen and nutrients to body tissues; is a fluid tissue
What does blood returns mean?
Blood carries carbon dioxide back to the lungs and carries waste products to the kidneys
hollow, muscular organ located within the thoracic cavity
outer surrounding sac of the heart
external layer of the heart that connects with the pericardium
middle layer of the heart; thickest muscular layer
inner lining of the heart that consists of epithelial tissue
How is blood supplied to the myocardium?
The coronary arteries get blood to the myocardium.
Atria or atrium
The two upper chambers of the heart (right and left)
The two lower chambers of the heart (right and left)
Why is the left ventricle of the heart unique?
The left ventricle is the thickest, strongest chamber, because it forces blood through the aorta into the body.
has 3 cusps; is between the left atrium and the left ventricle
Mitral valve or bicuspid valve
has 2 cusps; controls the opening between the right atrium and the right ventricle
Pulmonary semilunar valve
located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery; shaped like a half moon
Aortic semilunar valve
located between the left ventricle and the aorta; shaped like a half moon
AKA the cardiac cycle, is the complete contraction and relaxation of the heart muscles
formed on the ECG when the atria contracts
after the AV node fires the QRS wave is formed on the ECG, showing stimulation contraction of the ventricles
recovery or relaxation of the ventricles
represents hyperkalemia or high potassium level
The activities of the electrical conduction system: P wave is due to the simulation contraction of the ____; ____ node fires; the ____ complex show stimulation contraction of the ventricles; AV node fires; ____ relaxes; the T wave is the recovery, ______ of the ______.
What are the three types of blood vessels?
Arteries, veins, and capillaries
What are arteries?
Large blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to other body parts
What are veins?
Carry blood to the heart; superior vena cava and inferior vena cava are the two largest viens
What are arterials?
smaller arteries that deliver blood to capillaries
What is the aorta?
The largest artery in the body
What is the carotid artery?
The artery in the neck that supplies the brain with blood
What is the role of capillaries?
permit the exchange of nutrients and waste products between blood and cells of tissue; smallest of blood vessels; carry blood to venules
What do venules do?
Carry blood to veins
rhythmic pressure against the walls of an artery caused by the heart contracting
What is the normal pulse range for an adult?
60 to 100
measurement of amount of systolic and diastolic pressure against the walls of the arteries
What is the normal systolic range for an adult?
What is systolic pressure?
ventricles contract; highest pressure
What is diastolic pressure?
ventricles relaxing; lower pressure
What is the normal range for diastolic pressure for an adult?
What is composed of 55% liquid plasma and 45% formed elements?
91% water; straw-colored fluid that contains nutrients, hormones and waste products
red blood cells; formed element
white blood cells; formed element
thrombocytes or platelets
smallest formed elements of blood; responsible for blood clotting
What are the major blood types?
A, B, AB, and O
any substance the body regards as being foreign; A and B antigens determine blood type
What is the universal donor blood type?
What is the universal recipient blood type?
defines the presence of the Rh antigen on RBC; Rh positive makes blood type positive and Rh negative makes blood type negative
physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases and disorders of the heart
physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating abnormalities, diseases and disorders of the blood and blood-forming tissues
physician who specializes in the diagnosis, medical management and surgical treatment of disorders of the blood vessels
coronary artery disease; atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries
hardening and narrowing of the arteries caused by buildup of cholesterol plaque on the inner walls of the arteries
fatty deposit in the lumen of an artery
characteristic of atherosclerosis, deposit of plaque on or within the arterial wall
Ischemic heart disease, group of cardiac disabilities resulting from an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to the heart
insufficient supply of oxygen in the tissues due to a restricted blood flow to a part of the body
angina AKA angina pectoris
severe episodes of chest pain occur due to an inadequate blood flow to the myocardium
myocardial infarction; blockage of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque buildup
congestive heart failure; occurs mostly in older people; chronic condition where the heart is unable to pump out all of the blood it receives
abnormal enlargement of the heart, associated with CHF
inflammation of the heart
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
inflammation of the lining or valves of the heart caused by bacteria in the bloodstream
uncommon condition, inflammation of the myocardium developed because of a viral infection
inflammation of the pericardium where fluid builds up in the pericardial sac, which restricts the heartbeat and ability of the heart to pump blood to the body
used to describe all diseases of the heart muscle
abnormal blowing or clicking heart sound usually caused by defective heart valves
inflammation of a heart valve
abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in the inability of the valve to close completely
abnormal narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of one or more valves of the heart
the heart stops beating
abnormally slow heartbeat (less than 60)
abnormally fast heartbeat (greater than 90)
atrial fibrillation; twitching or quivering atria replace normal rhythms
paroxysmal atrial tachycardia
PAT; abrupt onset of very rapid and irregular heartbeats that originate in the atrium or AV node
ventricular fibrillation; can cause sudden cardiac death - most serious quivering, rapid, irregular and useless contractions of the ventricles.
inflammation of the blood vessels
abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel
peripheral vascular disease; disorders of blood vessels that are located outside of the heart and brain
peripheral arterial disease; caused by atherosclerosis, impaired circulation in extremities and vital organs
localized weak spot or balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery
abnormal hardening of the arteries
AKA thrombophlebitis, inflammation of a vein
abnormally swollen veins, usually occurs with superficial veins in the legs
abnormal condition of having a thrombus
stationary blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein
blockage of an artery by a thrombus
damage to the heart muscle caused by a thrombus blocking a coronary artery
deep vein thrombosis; thrombus in a deep vein in bedridden patients in which a clot can travel to the lungs causing fatality
sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus
blood clot that is broken up and circulating through the blood
abnormal increase in the number of RBC in the blood due to bone marrow excessively producing RBC
AKA bacteremia; sudden onset, can lead to sepsis and is often associated with severe infections caused by bacteria in the blood
abnormally small number of platelets circulating in the blood
abnormal increase in the number of platelets circulating in the blood
fatty substance that travels through the blood
type of cancer characterized by progressive increase in the number of abnormal WBC
lower than normal number of RBC
an absence of all formed elements
breaking down of RBC faster than red bone marrow can replace them
most common anemia; decrease in hemoglobin
larger than normal RBC
lacking IF; deficiency of vitamin B12; hereditary
sickle cell anemia
RBC are sickle shaped; hereditary
Thalassemia or Cooley's anemia
decreased hemoglobin and RBC; inherited
low density lipoproteins, bad cholesterol
high density lipoproteins, good cholesterol
high blood pressure
essential hypertension AKA primary or idiopathic hypertension
high blood pressure with no known cause
high blood pressure due to some other disease
low blood pressure
orthostatic hypotension AKA postural hypotension
when a patient's blood pressure drops from changing position, i.e. sitting to standing, etc.
x-ray of blood vessels
cardiac catheterization (CC)
dye is put into the heart via a catheter and an angiogram is formed
record of the electrical activity of the myocardium
electrocardiography; nonivasive process of recording the electrical activity of the myocardium
ambulatory EKG a patient takes home and wears for a 24-hour period
an EKG monitoring blood flow of the heart during exercise
lower blood pressure
medications that block the action of the enzyme that causes the blood vessels to contract resulting in hypertension
medications that relieve angina, lower blood pressure, or treat heart failure by reducing the workload of the heart by slowing the heartbeat rate
calcium channel blocker
medications that decrease the amount of calcium into the heart and vessels which decreases the workload of the heart by increasing blood supply and oxygen
water pills, stimulates the kidneys and increases urine output
given p.o., blood thinner to reduce clots
tissue plasminogen activator, administered to patients having a heart attack or stroke; if given a few hours after symptoms begin it can dissolve the damaging blood clots
narrows blood vessels
dilates blood vessels
put under the tongue, used to prevent or relieve angina pain
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, AKA balloon angioplasty; mechanically open/widen a partially blocked artery
wire mesh tube placed inside the artery after it has been opened to prevent restenosis
surgical removal of an artery
surgical removal of the plaque from a carotid artery
coronary artery bypass graft or bypass surgery; open heart surgery where the leg vein is used to pass over a blocked area
defibrillation AKA cardioversion
done by medications or electric shock (cardiac shock) when a patient is in cardiac arrest
automated external defribrillation
defibrillator for non-professionals that automatically defibriallates if necessary
used for treatment of bradycardia or atrial fibrillation to regulate the heartbeat
surgical removal of an aneurysm
surgical suturing of an aneurysm
surgical removal of an artery
to stop or control bleeding
plaque, fatty susbtance
a mixture or bleeding
blood, blood condition