Which statement does not accurately describe veins?
A)The have less elastic tissue and smooth muscle than arteries
B)They contain more fibrous tissue than arteries
C)Most veins in the extremities have valves
D)Always carry deoxygenated blood
Smooth muscle in the blood vessel wall:
A)is found primarily in the tunica intima
B)is mostly circularly arranged
C)is most abundant in veins
D)is usually innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system
A)is inversely proportional to the length of the vascular bed
B)increases in anemia
C)decreases in polycythemia
D)is inversely related to the diameter of the arterioles
Which of the following can lead to decreased venous return of blood to the heart?
A)an increase in blood volume
B)an increase in venous pressure
C)damage to the venous valves
D)increased muscular activity
Arterial blood pressure increases in response to:
A)increasing stroke volume
B)increasing heart rate
D)rising blood volume
E)all of these
Which of the following would not result in the dilation of the feeder arterioles and opening of the precapillary sphincters in systemic capillary beds?
A)a decrease in local tissue O2 content
B)an increase in local tissue CO2
C)a local increase in histamine
D)a local increase in pH
The structure of a capillary wall differs from that of a vein or an artery because:
A)it has two tunics instead of three
B)there is less smooth muscle
C)it has a single tunic- only the tunica intima
D)none of these
The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to:
A)a decrease in CO2
B)changes in arterial pressure
C)a decrease in O2
D)all of these
The myocardium receives its blood supply directly from the:
Blood flow in the capillaries is steady despite the rhythmic pumping of the heart because of the:
A)elasticity of the large arteries
B)small diameter of capillaries
C)thin walls of the veins
Using the letters from column B, match the artery descriptions in column A. (some require more than a single choice)
(a)Right common carotid
(c)Left common carotid
(1) unpaired branch of abdominal aorta
(2) second branch of aortic arch
(3) branch of internal carotid
(4) branch of external carotid
(5) origin of femoral arteries
Tracing the blood from the heart to the right hand, we find that blood leaves the heart and passes through the aorta, the right subclavian artery, the axillary and bracbial arteries, and through either the radial or ulnar artery to arrive at the hand. Which artery is missing from this sequence?
D)right common carotid
Which of the following do not drain directly into the inferior vena cava?
A)inferior phrenic veins
C)inferior mesenteric vein
Suppose that at a given point along a capillary, the following forces exist: capillary hydrostatic pressure (HPc) = 30 mmHg, interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (HPif) = 0 mmHg, capillary colloid osmotic pressure (OPc) = 25 mmHG, and interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure (OPic) = 2 mmHg. The net filtration pressure at this point in the capillary is:
How is the anatomy of capillary bed and capillaries suited to their functions?
Distinguish between elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and arterioles relative to location, histology, and functional adaptations
Write an equation showing the relationship between peripheral resistance, blood flow, and blood pressure.
Define blood pressure.
Differentiate between systolic and diastolic pressures.
What is normal blood pressure for a young adult?
Describe the neural mechanisms responsible for controlling blood pressure.
Explain the reasons for the observed changes in blood flow velocity in the different regions of the circulation?
how does the control of blood flow to the skin for the purpose of regulating body temperature differ from the control of nutrient blood flow to skin cells
Describe neural and chemical (both systemic and local) effects exerted on the blood vessels when one is fleeing from a mugger?
How is nutrients, waste and respiratory gases transported to and from blood and tissue space?
(a) What blood vessels contribute to the formation of the hepatic portal circulation?
(b) Why is a portal circulation a “strange” circulation?
Physiologists often consider capillaries and postcapillary venules together.
(a) What function do these vessels share?
(b) Structurally, how do they differ?
Mrs. Johnson is brought to the emergency room after being involved in auto accident. She is hemorrhaging and has a rapid, thready pulse, but her blood pressure is within normal limits. Describe the compensatory mechanisms that are acting to maintain her blood pressure in the face of blood loss.
A 60-year-old man is unable to walk more than 100 yards without experiencing severe chest pain in his left leg; the pain is relieved by resting for 5-10. He is told that the arteries of his leg are becoming occluded with fatty material and is advised to have the sympathetic nerves serving that body region severed. Explain how such surgery might help to relieve this man's problem.
Your friend Joanie, who knows little about science, is reading a magazine article about a patient who had an aneurysm at the base of the brain that suddenly grew much larger. The surgeons' first goal was to “keep it from rupturing,” and the second goal was to “relieve pressure on the brain stem and cranial nerves.” The surgeons were able to “replace the aneurysm with a section of plastic tubing,” so the patient recovered. Joanie asks you what all this means. (Hint: Check chapter 19 Related clinical terms, p. 748).
The Agawam High School band is playing some lively marches while the coaches are giving pep talks to their respective football squads. Although it is September, it is unseasonably hot (88 degrees Farenheight/31 degrees Celsius) and the band uniforms are wool. Suddenly, Harry the tuba player becomes light-headed and faints. Explain his fainting in terms of vascular events.
When one is cold or the external temperature is low, most venous blood returning from the distal part of the arm travels in the deep veins where it is picks up heat (by countercurrent exchange) from the nearby brachial artery en route. However, when one is hot, and especially during exercise, venous return from the distal arm travels in the superficial veins and those veins tend to bulge superficially in a person who is working out. Explain why venous return takes a different route in the second situation.
Finally you go to the oncology ward where Mrs. O'Leary is recovering from surgery for advanced breast cancer that had infiltrated her right breast and axillary lymph nodes. All of her axillary lymph nodes were removed and unfortunately, this severed most of the lymphatic vessels draining her right arm. You notice that her right arm is quite . Why?
Mrs. O'Leary is given a compression sleeve to wear on this arm to help relieve the edema.
Which of the pressures driving bulk flow at the capillaries will be altered by the compression sleeve?