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Chapter 8 A&P

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  • 1
    Which of the following is a true statement?

    The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.

    The head of the humerus articulates with the acromion process.

    The greater tubercle of the humerus articulates at the coracoid process of the scapula.

    The rotator cuff is responsible for the flexible extensions at the elbow joint.
    The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.
  • 2
    All joints permit some degree of movement, even if very slight.

    T
    F
    F
  • 3
    card image
    Which structure is composed primarily of dense irregular connective tissue?

    A
    B
    C
    D
    D
  • 4
    Tendon sheaths ________.

    are lined with dense irregular connective tissue

    are extensions of periosteum

    act as friction-reducing structures

    help anchor the tendon to the muscle
    act as friction-reducing structures
  • 5
    A ball-and-socket joint is a multiaxial joint.

    T
    F
    T
  • 6
    Most joints of the body are classified as ________ joints.

    fibrous
    cartilaginous
    synovial
    immovable
    synovial
  • 7
    card image
    Which joint in the figure is capable of multiaxial movement?

    A
    B
    C
    D
    E
    F
    A
  • 8
    Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called ________.

    bursae
    ligaments
    tendons
    menisci
    bursae
  • 9
    Moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space is called circumduction.

    T
    F
    T
  • 10
    Fibrous joints are classified as ________.

    pivot, hinge, and ball and socket
    sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
    hinge, saddle, and ellipsoidal
    symphysis, sacroiliac, and articular
    sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
  • 11
    Maggie is a 28-year-old Caucasian woman who has newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA). She complains of painful, stiff hands and feet, feeling tired all the time, and reports an intermittent low-grade fever. She asks the nurse if she is going to be "crippled." How should the nurse respond?

    RA is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder. Inflammation occurs in the joint, and the fluid that accumulates causes swelling, stiffness, impairment of joint movement, and extreme pain.

    RA results in the formation of bony spurs that enlarge the bone ends, restrict joint movement, and cause pain.

    RA arthritis is due to the accumulation of crystals in the joints that impair movement of the joint and cause extreme pain.

    Not all cases of RA result in fluid accumulation, swelling, stiffness, impairment of joint movement, and extreme pain.
    RA is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder. Inflammation occurs in the joint, and the fluid that accumulates causes swelling, stiffness, impairment of joint movement, and extreme pain.
  • 12
    Hinge joints permit movement in only two planes

    T
    F
    F
  • 13
    Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?

    the patellar ligament
    the lateral patellar retinacula
    the extracapsular ligament
    the medial patellar retinacula
    the patellar ligament
  • 14
    The wrist joint can exhibit adduction and eversion movements.

    T
    F
    F
  • 15
    card image
    All three joints in the below figure are classified as ______.

    fibrous joints
    synovial joints
    cartilaginous joints
    fibrous joints
  • 16
    Which of the following does NOT represent a structural classification of joints?

    fibrous
    cartilaginous
    synovial
    diarthrosis
    diarthrosis
  • 17
    In a sprain, the ________ of a joint are stretched or torn.

    bones
    tendons
    muscles
    ligaments
    ligaments
  • 18
    he only movement allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae is flexion.

    T
    F
    F
  • 19
    Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Identify the saddle joint of the skeleton.

    Interphalangeal joint of the finger.
    Carpometacarpal joint of the phalanges.
    Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.
    Meatcarpophalangeal joint of the finger.
    Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.
  • 20
    Supination is the movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to anterior..

    T
    F
    T
  • 21
    Synovial joints are classified into six main categories based on ________.

    their location

    the shape of their articular surfaces

    the amount of synovial fluid found in the joint cavity

    their size
    the shape of their articular surfaces
  • 22
    A person who has been diagnosed with a sprained ankle has an injury to the ligaments that attach to that joint.

    T
    F
    T
  • 23
    Which of the following is NOT a structural feature of synovial joints?

    a fluid-filled joint cavity
    bone ends covered with hyaline cartilage
    reinforcing ligaments
    bone ends united by fibrocartilage
    bone ends united by fibrocartilage
  • 24
    Which of the following is one difference between bursae and tendon sheaths?

    Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons.
    Bursae serve as cushioning fat pads between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths reduce friction between adjacent structures.
    Bursae contain a thin film of synovial fluid, while tendon sheaths lack synovial fluid altogether.
    Bursae are only found in synovial joints, while tendon sheaths are only found in fibrous joints.
    Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons.
  • 25
    Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following statements is true about this fluid?

    It contains lactic acid.
    It contains enzymes only.
    It contains hydrochloric acid.
    It contains hyaluronic acid.
    It contains hyaluronic acid.
  • 26
    The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.

    prevent hyperextension of the knee
    tend to run parallel to one another
    are also called collateral ligaments
    attach to each other in their midportions
    prevent hyperextension of the knee
  • 27
    The MAIN contributors to hip joint stability are __________.

    the rotator cuff muscles

    the muscle tendons that cross the joint

    the bulky hip and thigh muscles surrounding the joint

    the deep socket of the joint and strong capsular ligaments
    the deep socket of the joint and strong capsular ligaments
  • 28
    The gliding motion of the wrist uses ________ joints.

    hinge
    plane
    pivot
    condyloid
    plane
  • 29
    The articular surfaces of synovial joints play a minimal role in joint stability.

    T
    F
    T
  • 30
    Which of the following is a correct statement about development of joints?

    All fibrous joints are in the adult form by the time of birth.

    Joints develop in parallel with bones.

    By the end of the fourth week, fetal synovial joints resemble adult joints.

    Joints develop independent of bone growth.
    Joints develop in parallel with bones.
  • 31
    card image
    The joints indicated by the arrows in C and D are distinguished from those indicated in A and B by the presence of which of the following tissues?

    spongy bone
    fibro-cartilage
    elastic cartilage
    compact bone
    fibro-cartilage
  • 32
    Which of the following is not a part of the synovial joint?

    articular capsule
    articular cartilage
    joint cavity
    tendon sheath
    tendon sheath
  • 33
    In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.

    fibrocartilage
    tendon sheaths
    synovial membranes
    hyaline cartilage
    hyaline cartilage
  • 34
    The major role of ligaments at synovial joints is to help direct movement and restrict undesirable movement.

    T
    F
    T
  • 35
    card image
    The generalized model for the structural type of joint illustrated shares the LEAST number of features with which of the following?

    knee joint
    intervertebral joint
    intercarpal joint
    elbow joint
    intervertebral joint
  • 36
    The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called ________.

    cruciate ligaments
    tibial collateral ligaments
    anterior ligaments
    patellar ligaments
    cruciate ligaments
  • 37
    Supination is the movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to anterior.

    T
    F
    T
  • 38
    card image
    Which joint moves only by a uniaxial movement around its own axis?

    F
    B
    C
    D
    B
  • 39
    Pointing the toes is an example of ________.

    circumduction
    protraction
    plantar flexion
    pronation
    plantar flexion
  • 40
    Dislocations in the TMJ almost always dislocate posteriorly with the mandibular condyles ending up in the infratemporal fossa.

    T
    F
    F
  • 41
    Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called dorsiflexion.

    T
    F
    T
  • 42
    Tendon sheaths ________.

    are lined with dense irregular connective tissue

    are extensions of periosteum

    act as friction-reducing structures

    help anchor the tendon to the muscle
    act as friction-reducing structures
  • 43
    Which type of joint allows opposition?

    pivot joint
    saddle joint
    condylar joint
    hinge joint
    saddle joint
  • 44
    Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to joint stability?

    amount of muscle tone applied to tendons that cross the joint

    amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity

    shape of the articulating surfaces

    number and positioning of reinforcing ligaments
    amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity
  • 45
    What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane called?

    abduction
    dorsiflexion
    inversion
    adduction
    abduction
  • 46
    card image
    Which of these joints would be functionally classified as diarthrotic?

    A
    B
    C
    None of the listed responses is correct.
    None of the listed responses is correct.
  • 47
    On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?

    symphysis
    pivot
    synchondrosis
    syndesmosis
    syndesmosis
  • 48
    Which of the following is a true statement regarding gliding movements?

    A)Gliding movements allow flexibility of the upper limbs.

    B)An example of a gliding movement is nodding one's head.

    C)Gliding movements are multiaxial.

    D)Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.
    Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.
  • 49
    If a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is not properly repaired, the consequences could include the inability to prevent ________.

    medial rotation of an extended knee
    lateral rotation of an extended knee
    forward sliding of the tibia on the femur
    forward sliding of the femur
    forward sliding of the tibia on the femur
  • 50
    When a person makes a pinching motion with their thumb and forefinger they are performing a movement called ________.

    A)dorsiflexion
    B)supination
    C)retraction
    D)opposition
    E)elevation
    opposition
  • 51
    Synovial fluid is a viscous material that is derived by filtration from blood.

    T
    F
    T
  • 52
    Which inflammatory joint disease is caused by the bites of ticks that live on mice and deer?

    lyme disease
    bursitis
    gouty arthritis
    rheumatoid arthritis
    lyme disease
  • 53
    card image
    Which of the following is a hinge joint?

    A
    B
    F
    D
    F
  • 54
    card image
    The arrows in B and C point to structures that can both be described as a ______.

    ligament
    bone
    muscle
    tendon
    ligament
  • 55
    Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are characteristics of what type of joint?

    hinge joint
    symphysis
    synchondrosis
    suture
    hinge joint
  • 56
    Moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space is called circumduction.

    T
    F
    T
  • 57
    card image
    Which joint in the above figure is limited to nonaxial gliding movements?

    C
    F
    E
    D
    E
  • 58
    Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________.

    lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements

    the oblique popliteal crossing the knee anteriorly

    cruciate ligaments, which help secure the articulating bones together

    the patellar ligament extending from femur to patella
    lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements
  • 59
    The gliding motion of the wrist uses ________ joints.

    hinge
    plane
    pivot
    condyloid
    plane
  • 60
    Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of ________.

    extension
    hyperextension
    flexion
    circumduction
    hyperextension
  • 61
    Synarthrotic joints ________.

    have large joint cavities
    permit essentially no movement
    are found only in adults
    are cartilaginous joints
    permit essentially no movement
  • 62
    The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint.

    nonaxial
    uniaxial
    biaxial
    multiaxial
    multiaxial
  • 63
    The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ________.

    feet
    hands
    arms
    hands and the feet
    feet
  • 64
    Fluid-filled fibrous sacs lined with a synovial membrane and occurring where ligaments, muscles, and tendons rub together are called ________.
    bursae
  • 65
    In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?

    In cartilaginous joints, a joint cavity is present.

    Immovable joints are called amphiarthroses.

    Synarthrotic joints are slightly movable.

    All synovial joints are freely movable.
    All synovial joints are freely movable.
  • 66
    Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Identify the saddle joint of the skeleton.

    Interphalangeal joint of the finger.
    Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.
    Carpometacarpal joint of the phalanges.
    Meatcarpophalangeal joint of the finger.
    Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.
  • 67
    Which of the following refers to a joint that is immovable?

    amphiarthrosis
    synarthrosis
    diarthrosis
    synovial
    synarthrosis
  • 68
    Which of the following are cartilaginous joints?

    Syndesmoses
    Gomphoses
    Synchondroses
    Sutures
    Synchondroses
  • 69
    Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________.

    synovial joints
    diarthroses
    amphiarthroses
    synarthroses
    amphiarthroses
  • 70
    The synovial membrane ________.

    covers and protects the articulating bone surfaces

    lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule

    reinforces the joints so that the opposing bones are not pulled apart

    functions as a cushion between opposing bones
    lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule
  • 71
    Which of the following is CORRECTLY paired?

    uniaxial joint: permits only slipping or gliding movements

    nonaxial movement: no movement

    biaxial joint: permits movement in one plane and around one axis

    multiaxial movement: movement in all three planes and around all three axes
    multiaxial movement: movement in all three planes and around all three axes
  • 72
    The structural classification of joints is based on the composition of the binding material and the presence or absence of a joint cavity.

    T
    F
    T
  • 73
    Which of the following statements best describes angular movements?

    They allow movement only in one plane.

    They occur only between bones with flat articular processes.

    They allow movement in several planes.

    They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.
    They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.
  • 74
    card image
    Which of the joints will eventually develop into a synostosis?

    A
    B
    C
    D
    A
  • 75
    Which ligament would one tap to generate the knee-jerk reflex?

    patellar ligament
    tibial collateral ligament
    oblique popliteal ligament
    anterior cruciate ligament
    patellar ligament
  • 76
    Which of the following are cartilaginous joints?

    Gomphoses
    Synchondroses
    Syndesmoses
    Sutures
    Synchondroses
  • 77
    Symphyses are synarthrotic joints designed for strength with flexibility.

    T
    F
    F
  • 78
    What is the most important stabilizing factor for most synovial joints?

    the shape of the articular surfaces
    the size of the reinforcing ligaments
    muscle tone
    synovial fluid
    muscle tone
  • 79
    Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is (are) damaged as a result?

    suprapatellar

    oblique popliteal and extracapsular ligament

    arcuate popliteal and the posterior cruciate

    medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate
    medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate
  • 80
    Which movement increases the angle between articulating bones?

    flexion
    adduction
    supination
    extension
    extension
  • 81
    The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.

    are also called collateral ligaments
    attach to each other in their midportions
    prevent hyperextension of the knee
    tend to run parallel to one another
    prevent hyperextension of the knee
  • 82
    Which type of movement occurs at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints?

    rotation
    uniaxial movement
    gliding movement
    opposition
    gliding movement
  • 83
    Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to keeping the articular surfaces of diarthroses in contact?

    structure and shape of the articulating bone

    strength and tension of joint ligaments

    arrangement and tension of the muscles

    number of bones in the joint
    number of bones in the joint
  • 84
    card image
    Structure C and D collectively form which of the following?

    articular capsule
    synovial membrane
    ligament
    bursae
    articular capsule
  • 85
    Pronation is a much stronger movement than supination.

    T
    F
    F
  • 86
    Which of the following are CORRECTLY paired?

    synchondrosis: a plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones

    syndesmoses: bony edges interlock

    gomphoses: articulating bones are separated by a fluid containing cavity

    suture: bones connected exclusively by ligaments
    synchondrosis: a plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones
  • 87
    card image
    The thumb joint indicated by C mediates which of the following special movements?

    elevation
    opposition
    inversion
    dorsiflexion
    opposition
  • 88
    A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a ________.

    syndesmosis
    suture
    gomphosis
    symphysis
    symphysis
  • 89
    Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?

    cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

    joints that permit angular movements

    interphalangeal joints

    amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility
    cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones
  • 90
    Which of the following statements regarding the joints between the ribs and sternum is correct?

    All joints between the ribs and sternum are classified as synovial joints.

    The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synarthrotic; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are diarthrotic. This joint is labeled B in the figure.

    All joints between the ribs and sternum are classified as cartilaginous joints.

    The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synchondroses; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are symphyses.
    The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synarthrotic; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are diarthrotic. This joint is labeled B in the figure.
  • 91
    Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ________.

    rare because the rotator cuff stabilizes the hip joint

    common due to the weight bearing the hip endures

    rare because of the ligament reinforcement

    common in all people who are overweight
    rare because of the ligament reinforcement
  • 92
    Pronation is a much stronger movement than supination.

    T
    F
    F
  • 93
    card image
    Which of the following is true regarding the structure indicated by the arrow in the joint depicted in A?

    It is formed by a synovial membrane.

    It is composed of hyaline cartilage.

    It becomes ossified late in adult development.

    It is classified as amphiarthrotic.
    It becomes ossified late in adult development.
  • 94
    To realign an anteriorly dislocated Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a physician must push the mandible inferiorly and posteriorly in order to move the mandibular condyle past the temporal bone's ________.

    mandibular fossa
    articular tubercle
    articular capsule
    articular disc
    articular tubercle
  • 95
    Functional classification of joints is based on ________.

    the location of the joint

    whether a joint cavity is present

    the amount of movement allowed by the joint

    the size of the joint
    the amount of movement allowed by the joint
  • 96
    Synarthrotic joints ________.

    are cartilaginous joints
    permit essentially no movement
    are found only in adults
    have large joint cavities
    permit essentially no movement
  • 97
    Synovial fluid does NOT ________.

    contain phagocytic cells

    reduce friction between the articular cartilages

    nourish the cartilage cells in the joint

    prevent the articulating bones from dislocating
    prevent the articulating bones from dislocating
  • 98
    card image
    Which of the following terms describes the functional classification of the illustrated joint with regard to its range of movement?

    synarthrotic
    synovial
    diarthrotic
    amphiarthrotic
    diarthrotic
  • 99
    Which joint in the body is most susceptible to sports injuries?

    elbow
    wrist
    shoulder
    knee
    knee
  • 100
    The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional classification of joints.

    T
    F
    T
  • 101
    A person who has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis would be suffering loss of the synovial fluids.

    T
    F
    F
  • 102
    Which of the following movements does not increase or decrease the angle between bones?

    abduction
    circumduction
    extension
    rotation
    rotation
  • 103
    Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?

    osteoarthritis: chronic degenerative joint disease

    tendonitis: inflammation of the joint

    bursitis: urate crystals in the joint

    gout: inflammation of the tendons
    osteoarthritis: chronic degenerative joint disease
  • 104
    Which of the following movements does not increase or decrease the angle between bones?

    extension
    abduction
    rotation
    circumduction
    rotation
  • 105
    Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are characteristics of what type of joint?

    symphysis
    synchondrosis
    hinge joint
    suture
    hinge joint
  • 106
    Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ________.

    form the synovial membrane

    provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints

    attach tendons

    produce red blood cells (hemopoiesis)
    provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints
  • 107
    What are menisci?

    semilunar cartilage pads
    cavities lined with cartilage
    small sacs containing synovial fluid
    tendon sheaths
    semilunar cartilage pads
  • 108
    An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ________.

    between the vertebrae

    between the humerus and the glenoid cavity

    the radius and ulna along its length

    the clavicle and the scapula at the distal ends
    the radius and ulna along its length
  • 109
    Using the structural classification, what type of joint is the epiphyseal plate?

    synarthrotic joint
    cartilaginous joint
    fibrous joint
    amphiarthrotic joint
    cartilaginous joint
  • 110
    A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.

    suture
    gomphosis
    synchondrosis
    syndesmosis
    gomphosis
  • 111
    People who grind their teeth are likely to damage their ________.

    temporomandibular joints
    glenohumeral joint
    tibiofemoral joint
    coxal joint
    temporomandibular joints
  • 112
    The joint between the frontal and parietal bones is classified by material as a ________ joint.
    Suture
  • 113
    Movement at the hip joint does not have as wide a range of motion as at the shoulder joint.

    T
    F
    T
  • 114
    Bending of the tip of the finger exhibits flexion.

    T
    F
    T
  • 115
    Extension is an example of a(n) ________ movement.

    rotational
    gliding
    angular
    nonaxial
    angular
  • 116
    The gripping of the trochlea by the trochlear notch constitutes the "hinge" for the elbow joint.

    T
    F
    T
  • 117
    Synovial fluid contains phagocytic cells that protect the cavity from invasion by microbes or other debris.

    T
    F
    T
  • 118
    card image
    Joints A, B, C, and D in the figures below are all classified as ______.

    fibrous joints
    synovial joints
    cartilaginous joints
    cartilaginous joints
  • 119
    Which of the following is NOT a muscle of the rotator cuff?

    subscapularis muscle
    teres minor muscle
    biceps brachii muscle
    infraspinatus muscle
    supraspinatus muscle
    biceps brachii muscle
  • 120
    Which joint has sacrificed stability to provide great freedom of movement?

    shoulder
    ankle
    elbow
    knee
    shoulder
  • 121
    The shoulder and hip are examples of ________.

    hinge joints
    pivot joints
    condylar joints
    plane joints
    ball-and-socket joints
    ball-and-socket joints
  • 122
    The origin of a muscle is attached to the movable bone.

    T
    F
    F