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Chapter 8 A&P

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1

Which of the following is a true statement?

The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.

The head of the humerus articulates with the acromion process.

The greater tubercle of the humerus articulates at the coracoid process of the scapula.

The rotator cuff is responsible for the flexible extensions at the elbow joint.

The anular ligament surrounds the head of the radius.

2

All joints permit some degree of movement, even if very slight.

T
F

F

3
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Which structure is composed primarily of dense irregular connective tissue?

A
B
C
D

D

4

Tendon sheaths ________.

are lined with dense irregular connective tissue

are extensions of periosteum

act as friction-reducing structures

help anchor the tendon to the muscle

act as friction-reducing structures

5

A ball-and-socket joint is a multiaxial joint.

T
F

T

6

Most joints of the body are classified as ________ joints.

fibrous
cartilaginous
synovial
immovable

synovial

7
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Which joint in the figure is capable of multiaxial movement?

A
B
C
D
E
F

A

8

Connective tissue sacs lined with synovial membranes that act as cushions in places where friction develops are called ________.

bursae
ligaments
tendons
menisci

bursae

9

Moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space is called circumduction.

T
F

T

10

Fibrous joints are classified as ________.

pivot, hinge, and ball and socket
sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses
hinge, saddle, and ellipsoidal
symphysis, sacroiliac, and articular

sutures, syndesmoses, and gomphoses

11

Maggie is a 28-year-old Caucasian woman who has newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA). She complains of painful, stiff hands and feet, feeling tired all the time, and reports an intermittent low-grade fever. She asks the nurse if she is going to be "crippled." How should the nurse respond?

RA is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder. Inflammation occurs in the joint, and the fluid that accumulates causes swelling, stiffness, impairment of joint movement, and extreme pain.

RA results in the formation of bony spurs that enlarge the bone ends, restrict joint movement, and cause pain.

RA arthritis is due to the accumulation of crystals in the joints that impair movement of the joint and cause extreme pain.

Not all cases of RA result in fluid accumulation, swelling, stiffness, impairment of joint movement, and extreme pain.

RA is a chronic, systemic, inflammatory disorder. Inflammation occurs in the joint, and the fluid that accumulates causes swelling, stiffness, impairment of joint movement, and extreme pain.

12

Hinge joints permit movement in only two planes

T
F

F

13

Which ligament of the knee initiates the knee-jerk reflex when tapped?

the patellar ligament
the lateral patellar retinacula
the extracapsular ligament
the medial patellar retinacula

the patellar ligament

14

The wrist joint can exhibit adduction and eversion movements.

T
F

F

15
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All three joints in the below figure are classified as ______.

fibrous joints
synovial joints
cartilaginous joints

fibrous joints

16

Which of the following does NOT represent a structural classification of joints?

fibrous
cartilaginous
synovial
diarthrosis

diarthrosis

17

In a sprain, the ________ of a joint are stretched or torn.

bones
tendons
muscles
ligaments

ligaments

18

he only movement allowed between the first two cervical vertebrae is flexion.

T
F

F

19

Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Identify the saddle joint of the skeleton.

Interphalangeal joint of the finger.
Carpometacarpal joint of the phalanges.
Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.
Meatcarpophalangeal joint of the finger.

Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.

20

Supination is the movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to anterior..

T
F

T

21

Synovial joints are classified into six main categories based on ________.

their location

the shape of their articular surfaces

the amount of synovial fluid found in the joint cavity

their size

the shape of their articular surfaces

22

A person who has been diagnosed with a sprained ankle has an injury to the ligaments that attach to that joint.

T
F

T

23

Which of the following is NOT a structural feature of synovial joints?

a fluid-filled joint cavity
bone ends covered with hyaline cartilage
reinforcing ligaments
bone ends united by fibrocartilage

bone ends united by fibrocartilage

24

Which of the following is one difference between bursae and tendon sheaths?

Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons.
Bursae serve as cushioning fat pads between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths reduce friction between adjacent structures.
Bursae contain a thin film of synovial fluid, while tendon sheaths lack synovial fluid altogether.
Bursae are only found in synovial joints, while tendon sheaths are only found in fibrous joints.

Bursae are flattened fibrous sacs wedged between adjacent structures, while tendon sheaths are elongated fibrous sacs that wrap around tendons.

25

Synovial fluid is present in joint cavities of freely movable joints. Which of the following statements is true about this fluid?

It contains lactic acid.
It contains enzymes only.
It contains hydrochloric acid.
It contains hyaluronic acid.

It contains hyaluronic acid.

26

The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.

prevent hyperextension of the knee
tend to run parallel to one another
are also called collateral ligaments
attach to each other in their midportions

prevent hyperextension of the knee

27

The MAIN contributors to hip joint stability are __________.

the rotator cuff muscles

the muscle tendons that cross the joint

the bulky hip and thigh muscles surrounding the joint

the deep socket of the joint and strong capsular ligaments

the deep socket of the joint and strong capsular ligaments

28

The gliding motion of the wrist uses ________ joints.

hinge
plane
pivot
condyloid

plane

29

The articular surfaces of synovial joints play a minimal role in joint stability.

T
F

T

30

Which of the following is a correct statement about development of joints?

All fibrous joints are in the adult form by the time of birth.

Joints develop in parallel with bones.

By the end of the fourth week, fetal synovial joints resemble adult joints.

Joints develop independent of bone growth.

Joints develop in parallel with bones.

31
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The joints indicated by the arrows in C and D are distinguished from those indicated in A and B by the presence of which of the following tissues?

spongy bone
fibro-cartilage
elastic cartilage
compact bone

fibro-cartilage

32

Which of the following is not a part of the synovial joint?

articular capsule
articular cartilage
joint cavity
tendon sheath

tendon sheath

33

In symphysis joints the articular surfaces of the bones are covered with ________.

fibrocartilage
tendon sheaths
synovial membranes
hyaline cartilage

hyaline cartilage

34

The major role of ligaments at synovial joints is to help direct movement and restrict undesirable movement.

T
F

T

35
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The generalized model for the structural type of joint illustrated shares the LEAST number of features with which of the following?

knee joint
intervertebral joint
intercarpal joint
elbow joint

intervertebral joint

36

The ligaments that protect the alignment of the femoral and tibial condyles and limit the movement of the femur anteriorly and posteriorly are called ________.

cruciate ligaments
tibial collateral ligaments
anterior ligaments
patellar ligaments

cruciate ligaments

37

Supination is the movement of the forearm in which the palm of the hand is turned from posterior to anterior.

T
F

T

38
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Which joint moves only by a uniaxial movement around its own axis?

F
B
C
D

B

39

Pointing the toes is an example of ________.

circumduction
protraction
plantar flexion
pronation

plantar flexion

40

Dislocations in the TMJ almost always dislocate posteriorly with the mandibular condyles ending up in the infratemporal fossa.

T
F

F

41

Flexion of the ankle so that the superior aspect of the foot approaches the shin is called dorsiflexion.

T
F

T

42

Tendon sheaths ________.

are lined with dense irregular connective tissue

are extensions of periosteum

act as friction-reducing structures

help anchor the tendon to the muscle

act as friction-reducing structures

43

Which type of joint allows opposition?

pivot joint
saddle joint
condylar joint
hinge joint

saddle joint

44

Which of the following is NOT a factor that contributes to joint stability?

amount of muscle tone applied to tendons that cross the joint

amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity

shape of the articulating surfaces

number and positioning of reinforcing ligaments

amount of synovial fluid in the joint cavity

45

What is moving a limb away from the median plane of the body along the frontal plane called?

abduction
dorsiflexion
inversion
adduction

abduction

46
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Which of these joints would be functionally classified as diarthrotic?

A
B
C
None of the listed responses is correct.

None of the listed responses is correct.

47

On the basis of structural classification, which joint is fibrous connective tissue?

symphysis
pivot
synchondrosis
syndesmosis

syndesmosis

48

Which of the following is a true statement regarding gliding movements?

A)Gliding movements allow flexibility of the upper limbs.

B)An example of a gliding movement is nodding one's head.

C)Gliding movements are multiaxial.

D)Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.

Gliding movements occur at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints.

49

If a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is not properly repaired, the consequences could include the inability to prevent ________.

medial rotation of an extended knee
lateral rotation of an extended knee
forward sliding of the tibia on the femur
forward sliding of the femur

forward sliding of the tibia on the femur

50

When a person makes a pinching motion with their thumb and forefinger they are performing a movement called ________.

A)dorsiflexion
B)supination
C)retraction
D)opposition
E)elevation

opposition

51

Synovial fluid is a viscous material that is derived by filtration from blood.

T
F

T

52

Which inflammatory joint disease is caused by the bites of ticks that live on mice and deer?

lyme disease
bursitis
gouty arthritis
rheumatoid arthritis

lyme disease

53
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Which of the following is a hinge joint?

A
B
F
D

F

54
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The arrows in B and C point to structures that can both be described as a ______.

ligament
bone
muscle
tendon

ligament

55

Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are characteristics of what type of joint?

hinge joint
symphysis
synchondrosis
suture

hinge joint

56

Moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space is called circumduction.

T
F

T

57
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Which joint in the above figure is limited to nonaxial gliding movements?

C
F
E
D

E

58

Extracapsular ligaments stabilizing the knee include ________.

lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements

the oblique popliteal crossing the knee anteriorly

cruciate ligaments, which help secure the articulating bones together

the patellar ligament extending from femur to patella

lateral and medial collateral ligaments preventing lateral or medial angular movements

59

The gliding motion of the wrist uses ________ joints.

hinge
plane
pivot
condyloid

plane

60

Bending your head back until it hurts is an example of ________.

extension
hyperextension
flexion
circumduction

hyperextension

61

Synarthrotic joints ________.

have large joint cavities
permit essentially no movement
are found only in adults
are cartilaginous joints

permit essentially no movement

62

The hip joint is a good example of a(n) ________ synovial joint.

nonaxial
uniaxial
biaxial
multiaxial

multiaxial

63

The terms inversion and eversion pertain only to the ________.

feet
hands
arms
hands and the feet

feet

64

Fluid-filled fibrous sacs lined with a synovial membrane and occurring where ligaments, muscles, and tendons rub together are called ________.

bursae

65

In the classification of joints, which of the following is true?

In cartilaginous joints, a joint cavity is present.

Immovable joints are called amphiarthroses.

Synarthrotic joints are slightly movable.

All synovial joints are freely movable.

All synovial joints are freely movable.

66

Saddle joints have concave and convex surfaces. Identify the saddle joint of the skeleton.

Interphalangeal joint of the finger.
Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.
Carpometacarpal joint of the phalanges.
Meatcarpophalangeal joint of the finger.

Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb.

67

Which of the following refers to a joint that is immovable?

amphiarthrosis
synarthrosis
diarthrosis
synovial

synarthrosis

68

Which of the following are cartilaginous joints?

Syndesmoses
Gomphoses
Synchondroses
Sutures

Synchondroses

69

Articulations permitting only slight degrees of movement are ________.

synovial joints
diarthroses
amphiarthroses
synarthroses

amphiarthroses

70

The synovial membrane ________.

covers and protects the articulating bone surfaces

lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule

reinforces the joints so that the opposing bones are not pulled apart

functions as a cushion between opposing bones

lines the inside of the fibrous joint capsule

71

Which of the following is CORRECTLY paired?

uniaxial joint: permits only slipping or gliding movements

nonaxial movement: no movement

biaxial joint: permits movement in one plane and around one axis

multiaxial movement: movement in all three planes and around all three axes

multiaxial movement: movement in all three planes and around all three axes

72

The structural classification of joints is based on the composition of the binding material and the presence or absence of a joint cavity.

T
F

T

73

Which of the following statements best describes angular movements?

They allow movement only in one plane.

They occur only between bones with flat articular processes.

They allow movement in several planes.

They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.

They change (increase or decrease) the angle between two bones.

74
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Which of the joints will eventually develop into a synostosis?

A
B
C
D

A

75

Which ligament would one tap to generate the knee-jerk reflex?

patellar ligament
tibial collateral ligament
oblique popliteal ligament
anterior cruciate ligament

patellar ligament

76

Which of the following are cartilaginous joints?

Gomphoses
Synchondroses
Syndesmoses
Sutures

Synchondroses

77

Symphyses are synarthrotic joints designed for strength with flexibility.

T
F

F

78

What is the most important stabilizing factor for most synovial joints?

the shape of the articular surfaces
the size of the reinforcing ligaments
muscle tone
synovial fluid

muscle tone

79

Football players often sustain lateral blows to the extended knee. Which of the ligaments is (are) damaged as a result?

suprapatellar

oblique popliteal and extracapsular ligament

arcuate popliteal and the posterior cruciate

medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate

medial collateral, medial meniscus, and anterior cruciate

80

Which movement increases the angle between articulating bones?

flexion
adduction
supination
extension

extension

81

The cruciate ligaments of the knee ________.

are also called collateral ligaments
attach to each other in their midportions
prevent hyperextension of the knee
tend to run parallel to one another

prevent hyperextension of the knee

82

Which type of movement occurs at the intercarpal and intertarsal joints?

rotation
uniaxial movement
gliding movement
opposition

gliding movement

83

Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to keeping the articular surfaces of diarthroses in contact?

structure and shape of the articulating bone

strength and tension of joint ligaments

arrangement and tension of the muscles

number of bones in the joint

number of bones in the joint

84
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Structure C and D collectively form which of the following?

articular capsule
synovial membrane
ligament
bursae

articular capsule

85

Pronation is a much stronger movement than supination.

T
F

F

86

Which of the following are CORRECTLY paired?

synchondrosis: a plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones

syndesmoses: bony edges interlock

gomphoses: articulating bones are separated by a fluid containing cavity

suture: bones connected exclusively by ligaments

synchondrosis: a plate of hyaline cartilage unites the bones

87
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The thumb joint indicated by C mediates which of the following special movements?

elevation
opposition
inversion
dorsiflexion

opposition

88

A joint united by dense fibrocartilaginous tissue that usually permits a slight degree of movement is a ________.

syndesmosis
suture
gomphosis
symphysis

symphysis

89

Which of the following statements defines synchondroses?

cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

joints that permit angular movements

interphalangeal joints

amphiarthrotic joints designed for strength and flexibility

cartilaginous joints where hyaline cartilage unites the ends of bones

90

Which of the following statements regarding the joints between the ribs and sternum is correct?

All joints between the ribs and sternum are classified as synovial joints.

The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synarthrotic; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are diarthrotic. This joint is labeled B in the figure.

All joints between the ribs and sternum are classified as cartilaginous joints.

The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synchondroses; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are symphyses.

The joints between the first ribs and sternum are synarthrotic; the joints between the other ribs and sternum are diarthrotic. This joint is labeled B in the figure.

91

Compared to the shoulder, displacements of the hip joints are ________.

rare because the rotator cuff stabilizes the hip joint

common due to the weight bearing the hip endures

rare because of the ligament reinforcement

common in all people who are overweight

rare because of the ligament reinforcement

92

Pronation is a much stronger movement than supination.

T
F

F

93
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Which of the following is true regarding the structure indicated by the arrow in the joint depicted in A?

It is formed by a synovial membrane.

It is composed of hyaline cartilage.

It becomes ossified late in adult development.

It is classified as amphiarthrotic.

It becomes ossified late in adult development.

94

To realign an anteriorly dislocated Temporomandibular joint (TMJ), a physician must push the mandible inferiorly and posteriorly in order to move the mandibular condyle past the temporal bone's ________.

mandibular fossa
articular tubercle
articular capsule
articular disc

articular tubercle

95

Functional classification of joints is based on ________.

the location of the joint

whether a joint cavity is present

the amount of movement allowed by the joint

the size of the joint

the amount of movement allowed by the joint

96

Synarthrotic joints ________.

are cartilaginous joints
permit essentially no movement
are found only in adults
have large joint cavities

permit essentially no movement

97

Synovial fluid does NOT ________.

contain phagocytic cells

reduce friction between the articular cartilages

nourish the cartilage cells in the joint

prevent the articulating bones from dislocating

prevent the articulating bones from dislocating

98
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Which of the following terms describes the functional classification of the illustrated joint with regard to its range of movement?

synarthrotic
synovial
diarthrotic
amphiarthrotic

diarthrotic

99

Which joint in the body is most susceptible to sports injuries?

elbow
wrist
shoulder
knee

knee

100

The amount of movement permitted by a particular joint is the basis for the functional classification of joints.

T
F

T

101

A person who has been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis would be suffering loss of the synovial fluids.

T
F

F

102

Which of the following movements does not increase or decrease the angle between bones?

abduction
circumduction
extension
rotation

rotation

103

Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?

osteoarthritis: chronic degenerative joint disease

tendonitis: inflammation of the joint

bursitis: urate crystals in the joint

gout: inflammation of the tendons

osteoarthritis: chronic degenerative joint disease

104

Which of the following movements does not increase or decrease the angle between bones?

extension
abduction
rotation
circumduction

rotation

105

Presence of a synovial cavity, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, and ligaments are characteristics of what type of joint?

symphysis
synchondrosis
hinge joint
suture

hinge joint

106

Articular cartilage found at the ends of the long bones serves to ________.

form the synovial membrane

provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints

attach tendons

produce red blood cells (hemopoiesis)

provide a smooth surface at the ends of synovial joints

107

What are menisci?

semilunar cartilage pads
cavities lined with cartilage
small sacs containing synovial fluid
tendon sheaths

semilunar cartilage pads

108

An example of an interosseus fibrous joint is ________.

between the vertebrae

between the humerus and the glenoid cavity

the radius and ulna along its length

the clavicle and the scapula at the distal ends

the radius and ulna along its length

109

Using the structural classification, what type of joint is the epiphyseal plate?

synarthrotic joint
cartilaginous joint
fibrous joint
amphiarthrotic joint

cartilaginous joint

110

A fibrous joint that is a peg-in-socket is called a ________ joint.

suture
gomphosis
synchondrosis
syndesmosis

gomphosis

111

People who grind their teeth are likely to damage their ________.

temporomandibular joints
glenohumeral joint
tibiofemoral joint
coxal joint

temporomandibular joints

112

The joint between the frontal and parietal bones is classified by material as a ________ joint.

Suture

113

Movement at the hip joint does not have as wide a range of motion as at the shoulder joint.

T
F

T

114

Bending of the tip of the finger exhibits flexion.

T
F

T

115

Extension is an example of a(n) ________ movement.

rotational
gliding
angular
nonaxial

angular

116

The gripping of the trochlea by the trochlear notch constitutes the "hinge" for the elbow joint.

T
F

T

117

Synovial fluid contains phagocytic cells that protect the cavity from invasion by microbes or other debris.

T
F

T

118
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Joints A, B, C, and D in the figures below are all classified as ______.

fibrous joints
synovial joints
cartilaginous joints

cartilaginous joints

119

Which of the following is NOT a muscle of the rotator cuff?

subscapularis muscle
teres minor muscle
biceps brachii muscle
infraspinatus muscle
supraspinatus muscle

biceps brachii muscle

120

Which joint has sacrificed stability to provide great freedom of movement?

shoulder
ankle
elbow
knee

shoulder

121

The shoulder and hip are examples of ________.

hinge joints
pivot joints
condylar joints
plane joints
ball-and-socket joints

ball-and-socket joints

122

The origin of a muscle is attached to the movable bone.

T
F

F