Final Review-Misc Chapters

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1

WHAT IS THE LOCATION OF THE HEART?

located in the chest between the lungs behind the sternum and above the diaphragm

2

WHAT ARE THE TWO TYPES OF HEART VALVES?

SEMI-LUNAR VALVES

AV VALVES

3

WHAT ARE THE NAMES & LOCATIONS OF THE AV VALVES?

TRICUSPID (ON RIGHT)

BICUSPID AKA MITRAL (ON LEFT)

located between the upper chambers (atria) and the lower chambers (ventricles)

4

WHAT ARE THE NAMES & LOCATIONS OF THE SEMILUNAR VALVES?

AORTIC VALVE-(BETWEEN LEFT VENTRICLE & AORTA)

PULMONARY VALVES- (ON THE RIGHT)

Located in the arteries leaving the heart.

5

WHAT IS THE DIRECTION OF BLOOD FLOW FROM THE HEART?

BLOOD ENTER THROUGH 2-LARGE VEINS SUPERIOR & INFERIOR VENA CAVA EMPTIES DEOXYGENATED BLOOD FROM BODY → RA→THROUGH→ TRICUSPID VALVE→ RV→THROUGH PULMONARY VALVE→ PULMONARY TRUNK→ THROUGH PULMONARY ARTIERIES=OXYGENATED BLOOD TO LUNGS

DEOXYGENATED BLOOD FLOWS BACK TO THE HEART FROM PULMONARY VEINS→ THROUGH MITRAL VALVE→LV→THROUGH AORTIC VALVE→ TO BODY

6

WHAT IS THE FIRST HEART SOUND?

LUB

7

WHEN THE _______ AND ________ VALVES CLOSE THEY MAKE THE SECOND HEART SOUND DUB?

AORTIC & PULMONARY (SEMILUNAR VALVES)

8

WHAT IS THE SECOND HEART SOUND?

DUB

9

WHAT ARE THE ARTERIES ATTACHED TO YOUR HEART?

AORTA

ASCENDING AORTA

BRACHIOCEPHALIC ARTERY

CIRCUMFLEX BRANCH OF LEFT CORONARY ARTERY

LEFT ANTERIOR DESCENDING ARTERY

LEFT CORONARY ARTERY

LEFT MARGINAL ARTERY

PULMONARY ARTERY

POSTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR ARTERY

RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY

SINOATRIAL ARTERY

10

WHAT ARE THE VEINS ATTACHED TO YOUR HEART?

AXILLARY VEIN

CORONARY SINUS

GREAT CARDIAC VEIN

INFERIOR VENA CAVA

JUGULAR VEIN

LEFT MARGINAL VEIN

MIDDLE CARDIAC VEIN

OBLIQUE VEIN OF THE LEFT ATRIUM

PULMONARY VEIN

RIGHT MARGINAL VEIN

SUPERIOR VENA CAVA

VENAE CAVA

11

WHAT TYPE OF BLOOD DO THE PULMONARY VEINS CARRY?

OXYGENATED BLOOD

12

WHAT TYPE OF BLOOD DO THE PULMONARY ARTERIES CARRY?

DE-OXYGENATED BLOOD

13

WHAT ARE THE LAYERS OF THE HEART

EPICARDIUM

MYOCARDIUM

ENDOCARDIUM

14

INNER MOST LAYER OF THE HEART?

ENDOCARDIUM

15

OUTER MOST LAYER OF THE HEART

EPICARDIUM AKA VISCERAL PERICARDIUM

16

MIDDLE LAYER OF THE HEART

MYOCARDIUM

17

WHAT ARE THE 3-LAYERS OF PERICARDIUM?

FIBROUS PERICARDIUM (HARD FIBROUS)

PARIETAL PERICARDIUM

VISCERAL PERICARDIUM

18

WHAT 2 LAYERS OF PERICARDIUM FORM THE SEROUS PERICARDIUM?

PARIETAL PERICARDIUM

VISCERAL PERICARDIUM

19

WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTIC OF SEROUS PERICARDIUM?

LOOSE

LIQUIDY

20

WHAT ARE THE CORONARY ARTERIES

ATRIAL BRANCHES OF CORONARY ARTERIES

AV NODAL BRANCH

CIRCUMFLEX BRANCH OF LEFT CORONARY ARTERY

INTERNAL THORACIC ARTERY

LEFT ANTERIOR DESCENDING ARTERY

LEFT CORONARY ARTERY

POSTERIOR INTERVENTRICULAR ARTERY

RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY

SINOATRIAL NODAL ARTERY

21

HOW IS THE RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY DIVIDED?

ANTERIOR DESCENDING CORONARY

MARGINAL

22

HOW IS THE LEFT CORONARY ARTERY DIVIDED?

CIRCUMFLEX

POSTERIOR DESCENDING ARTERY

23

WHAT ARE THE CORONARY VEINS & THEIR FUNCTION?

GREAT CARDIAC VEIN

CORONARY SINUS

MIDDLE CARDIAC VEIN

OBLIQUE VEIN OF THE LEFT ATRIUM

POSTERIOR VEIN OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE

RIGHT MARGINAL VEIN

SMALL CARDIAC VEIN

Collect the blood from the heart

24

WHAT MAKES UP THE HEARTS CONDUCTION SYSTEM?

SA NODE

AV NODE

BUNDLE OF HIS

R & L BUNDLE BRANCHES

PERKINJE FIBERS

25

WHAT IS THE PACE MAKER OF THE HEART

SA NODE

26

HOW OFTEN DOES THE SA NODE FIRE?

60-100

27

WHERE IS THE SA NODE LOCATED?

RIGHT ATRIUM

28

WHERE IS THE AV NODE LOCATED?

LOCATED IN THE RIGHT ATRIUM BETWEEN THE RIGHT & LEFT VENTRICLES

29

WHERE IS THE BUNDLE OF HIS LOCATED?

BURIED BEHIND THE SEPTUM

30

WHERE ARE THE RIGHT AND LEFT BUNDLE BRANCHES LOCATED?

IN THE SEPTUM

31

WHERE ARE THE PURKINJE FIBERS LOCATED?

IN THE VENTRICLES

32

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE PURKINJE FIBERS?

FIRE THE MUSCLES OF THE VENTRICLE

33

WHAT ARE THE EKG WAVES?

P

QRS

T

34

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF P WAVES?

ATRIAL DEPOLARIZATION

ATRIUM ARE CONTRACTING

35

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF QRS WAVES?

VENTRICULAR DEPOLARIZATION

VENTRICLES ARE CONTRACTING

36

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF T WAVES?

VENTRICULAR REPOLARIZATION

VENTRICLES ARE RELAXING

37

WHAT IS THE PR INTERVAL?

THE BEGINNING OF THE P WAVE TO THE BEGINNING OF THE R WAVE

THE TIME IT TAKES THE IMPULSE TO MOVE FROM THE ATRIUM TO THE VENTRICLE

38

WHAT IS STROKE VOLUME (SV)?

THE AMOUNT OF VOLUME OF BLOOD EJECTED BY BOTH VENTRICLES EVERYTIME THEY BEAT. ABOUT 50 ML.

39

WHAT IS HEART RATE?

HOW OFTEN YOUR HEART BEATS IN 1-MINUTE

60-100

40

WHAT IS CARDIAC OUTPUT?

THE AMOUNT OF BLOOD PUMPED BY THE HEART IN 1-MINUTE.

HR/SV

41

WHAT ARE THE WALLS OF THE VEIN MADE OF?

TUNICA INTIMA- INNERMOST LAYER

TUNICA MEDIA- MIDDLE LAYER

TUNICA ADVENTITIA/EXTERNA - OUTERMOST LAYER

42

WHICH HAVE THICKER WALLS ARTERIES OR VEINS & WHY?

ARTERIES BECAUSE OF HIGH PRESSURE

43

WHICH VESSEL IS THE THINNEST OF THEM ALL?

CAPILLARIES

44

WHAT ARE THE 3 TYPES OF CAPILLARIES?

CONTINOUS

FENESTRATED

SINUSOIDAL

45

WHERE ARE CONTINUOS CAPILLARIES FOUND?

SKIN

MUSCLE

46

WHERE ARE FENESTRATED CAPILLARIES FOUND?

KIDNEY

SMALL INTESTINE

(HAVE SMALL HOLES)

47

WHERE ARE SINUSOIDAL CAPILLARIES FOUND?

SPLEEN

LIVER

BONE MARROW

(BIG HOLES)

48

VASA VASORUM

SMALL BLOOD VESSELS IN THE WALLS OF THE MAJOR ARTERIES THAT PROVIDE THEM WITH NUTRITION

49

WHAT HORMONES RAISE BLOOD PRESSURE?

RENIN

EPINEPHRIN

ADH

50

WHAT HORMONES LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE?

ANP

51

WHAT IS THE NAME FOR RED BLOOD CELLS?

ERYTHROCYTES

52

WHAT ARE THE CELLS THAT MAKE UP BLOOD?

ERYTHROCYTES (RBC)

LEUKOCYTES (WBC)

PLATELETS (THROMBOCYTES)

53

WHICH CELL IS THE COMPLETE (ACTUAL CELL)?

LEUKOCYTES (WBC)

54

WHICH CELL IS NOT THE ACTUAL CELL?

ERYTHROCYTES (RBC)

55

WHICH CELLS ARE FRAGMENTS OF CELLS (HAVE PARTICLES)?

PLATELETS (THROMBOCYTES)

56

WHAT BLOOD TYPE IS THE UNIVERSAL DONOR?

O

57

WHAT BLOOD TYPE IS THE UNIVERSAL RECIPEINT?

AB

58

WHAT BLOOD CELL HAS THE SHORTEST LIFE LINE?

RBC (ABOUT 120 DAYS)

59

WHAT CELLS FIGHT OFF BACTERIA?

NEUTROPHILS

60

BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER HAS?

CONTINUOUS CAPPILARRIES

61

WHERE DOES REABSORPTION AND FILTRATION TAKE PLACE?

URINARY & GI

62

RUQ (LIVER) HAS ALOT OF?

SINUSOIDS

63

WHAT HORMONE DECREASES BLOOD PRESSURE & HOW?

ANP (ATRIAL NATRIUERTIC PEPTIDE)

IT INHIBITS ALDOSTERONE (STOPS IT)

64

WHICH MUSCLES DO YOU USE DURING NORMAL INSPIRATION?

INTERNAL INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES & DIAPHRAGM

65

WHICH MUSCLES ARE USED DURING FORCEFUL EXPIRATION?

ABDOMEN

66

WHAT ORGAN MAKES BILE?

LIVER

67

WHERE IS BILE STORED?

GALLBLADDER

68

THE ONLY POSITIVE FEEDBACK IS?

BIRTH

69

WHICH HOMONE CONTROLS POSITIVE FEEDBACK?

OXYTOCIN

70

WHAT HORMONE CONTROLS YOUR SLEEP CYCLE?

MELATONIN

71

WHAT IS LYSIS?

BREAKDOWN

72

WHAT DOES GLUCOGENESIS DO?

MAKES NEW GLUCOSE

73

WHAT ARE YOUR SALIVARY GLANDS?

SUBLINGUAL GLANDS

SUBMANDIBULAR GLANDS

PAROTID GLANDS

74

WHAT HAPPENS IF CARDIAC OUTPUT INCREASES?

EVERYTHING ELSE INCREASES

75

WHAT IS THE INNERMOST LAYER OF THE PERICARDIUM?

EPICARDIUM

76

NEPHRONS WHICH PLAY A KEY ROLE IN PRODUCING CONCENTRATED URINE ARE THE?

JUXTAMEDULLARY NEPHRONS

77

A DIET HIGH IN NaCl WILL RAISE BLOOD PRESSURE . THIS RESULTS IN____ RENIN SECRETION?

DECREASED

78

THE NEPHRON IS THE ?

FUNCTIONAL UNIT OF THE KIDNEY

79

IF THE GfR IS TOO_____ NEEDED SUBSTANCES CAN NOT BE REABSORBED QUICKLY ENOUGH AND AND ARE LOST IN URINE?

HIGH

80

WHICH DOES NOT TRIGGER THE RELEASE OF RENIN BY THE GRANULAR CELLS?

BLOOD GLUCOSE

81

THE FUNCTION OF THE MACULA DENSA CELLS IS TO?

MONITOR NaCl CONCENTRATION IN THE FILTRATE

82

ADH PRODUCES CONCENTRATED URINE BECAUSE IT LEADS TO?

INCREASED H20 REABSORPTION

83

THE FLUID IN THE CAPSULAR SPACE IS SIMILAR TO PLASMA EXCEPT THAT IT DOES NOT CONTAIN?

PLASMA PROTEIN

84

THE FILTRATION MEMBRANE INCLUDES ALL EXCEPT?

RENAL FASCIA

85

WHAT CELLS FIGHT PARASITES?

EOSONOPHILS

86

WHAT CELLS FIGHT ALLERGIES?

BASOPHILS

87

VACCINES PROVIDE WHAT TYPE OF IMMUNITY?

ARTIFICIAL ACTIVE IMUNITY

88

BREAST MILK PROVIDE WHAT TYPE OF IMMUNITY?

PASSIVE NATURAL IMMUNITY

89

SELF TOLERANCE WILL NOT?

ATTACK NORMAL CELLS

90

WHAT ARE THE BODIES 3 LINES OF DEFENSE?

Barriers at body surfaces
Innate immunity/ non-specific
Adaptive immunity/ specific

91

1st line of defense

barriers at body surfaces
skin layers
chemicals in saliva, tears, mucous, etc.
bacteria we have keeps harmful ones out

92

2nd line of defense

nonspecific/ innate immunity
built in automatic when 1st fails
inflammation and swelling
compliment proteins
organs- lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils

general response; inborn general defenses against infection

93

3rd line of defense

specific response; adaptive immunity
high alert
some memory some effector-
effector T cells
effector B cells

94

HOW DOES THE LYMPH DRAIN?

RIGHT SIDE, RIGHT LYMPHATIC, THORACIC DUCT

95

AIRFLOW GETS WARM BY?

BLOOD CAPILLARIES IN NASAL MUCOSA

96

WHAT HORMONE SYNTHESIZES MILK PRODUCTION?

PROLACTIN

97

WHAT HORMONES ARE PRESENT FOR METABOLISM?

T3

T4

98

WHAT BREAKS DOWN BLOOD?

PARATHYROID

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK

99

WHAT HORMONE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR LET DOWN?

OXYTOCIN

100

WHAT HORMONE CONSERVES NaCl?

ALDOSTERONE

101

WHAT HORMONE REABSORBS WATER?

ADH