A&P II Lab final

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Urinary System
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6th grade, 7th grade, 8th grade, 9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade, College: First year, College: Second year
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a & p ii
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1

The body system that includes kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra

Urinary System

2

Function of the urinary system

maintain electrolyte balance;
remove nitrogenous waste;
regulate fluid balance; maintain blood and tissue ph

3

The functional unit of the kidney

nephron

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The cluster of capillaries, forming part of the nephron "little ball of yarn" that forms filtrate

glomerulus

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"foot cells"

podocytes

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capsule of the nephron

Bowman's Capsule

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3 functions of the nephron

filtration;
reabsorption;
secretion

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The smooth collapsible, muscular sac that stores urine temporarily (storage resevoir for urine)

urinary bladder

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3 parts of the glomerular filtration membrane

fenestrated glomeralar endothelium (capillary);
basement membrane (connective tissue)
capsular epithelium (Bowman's capsule)

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macula densa

chemoreceptors/osmoreceptors

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JG (juxtaglomerular)cells

mechanoreceptors

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ureter

exits pelvis of the kidney to urinary bladder

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urethra

expels urine to the outside of the body

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the openings in the glomerular endothelium [L. fedestratus, windows]

Fenestatal

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functional unit of the kidney, consisting of the renal corpuscle, the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule

Nephron

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one of two tubes conducting urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

Ureter

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tube conducting urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

Urethra

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Inability to prevent the discharge of any of the excretions, especially of urine or feces

Incontinence

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part of the kidney consisting of renal lobules in the outer zone beneath the capsule and the lobules of the renal columns that are extensions inward between the pyramids;

Renal cortex- (contains the renal corpuscles, medullary rays, and proximal and distal convoluted tubules)

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One of a number of pyramidal masses seen on longitudinal section of the kidney; they contain part of the loops of Henle and the collecting tubules

Renal Pyramid

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Mass of capillary loops at the beginning of each nephron, nearly surrounded by Bowman’s capsule

Glomerulus

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artery conveying blood to a part

Afferent vessel

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efferent glomerular arteriole of kidney

Efferent vessel

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a microscopic structure in the kidney, which regulates the function of each nephron. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is found between the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle and the returning Distal Convoluted Tubule of the same nephron. This location is critical to its function in regulating renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. The three cellular components of the apparatus are the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole and juxtaglomerular cells.

JG apparatus

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cells of the distal convoluted tubule located at the renal corpuscle and forming part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus

Macula densa

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the nephron that extends from the glomerulus to the descending limb of the loop of Henle

PCT-(Proximal Convoluted Tubule

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convoluted tubule of the nephron that extends from the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and ends in the collecting duct

DCT-(Distal Convoluted Tubule)

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U-shaped part of tge nephron extending from the proximal to the distal convoluted tubule and consisting of descending and ascending limbs. Some of the loops of Henle extend into the renal pyramids

Loop of Henle

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A double-walled, cup-shaped structure around the glomerulus of each nephron of the vertebrate kidney. It serves as a filter to remove organic wastes, excess inorganic salts, and water.

Bowman’s capsule

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Movement, due to a pressure difference, of a liquid through a filter that prevents some or all of the substance in the liquid from passing through

Filtration

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The act of resorbing

Resorption

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Substance produced inside a cell and released from the cell

Secretion

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Specialized capillary that extends from the cortex of the kidney into the medulla and then back to the cortex

Vas Recta

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capillary network located in the cortex of the kidney; associated with the distal and proximal convoluted tubules

Peritubular capillary bed

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The Bowman's capsule extends into a tubule that is proximal to the glamerulus, called the ______

PCT or proximal convoluted tubule

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Hair pin loop of nephron tubule that descends/ascends, assisting electrolyte balance by forming a concentration gradient, is _______

Loop of Henley

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portion of the loop of the nephron distal to the glomerulus is the _____

DCT or distal convoluted tubule

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Urination, voiding, emptying of urinary bladder is formally called _______

micturition

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small, red, retroperitoneal bean shaped organs that are responsible for urine formation, are called the

kidneys

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substances that increase urine production are collectively called _____

diuretics

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process of filtering, as in the glomerulus filtering filtering the blood into Bowman's capsule, is formally called _______

filtration

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The outside of any organ is called the _______

cortex

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pyramid shaped collection of tubules within the medulla of the kidneys

renal pyramids

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opening "basin" or collective expansions of the major calyces in the kidney

renal pelvis

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excretory product from the urinary system, or filtrate that has passed into the collecting ducts to the papillary ducts

urine

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connective tissue "capsule" that wraps tightly around the perimeter of the kidney like the skin of an apple

renal capsule

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measurement of concentration within a nephron, measured in milliosmols

concentration

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indentation of the kidney

renal hilus or renal hilum

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collective openings of two or more minor calyces

mahor calyces

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middle of any organ is called the

medulla

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middle of the kidney is called the

renal medulla

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capsule that surrounds, supports and protects the kidney made of adipose tissue, is called the

renal capsule

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fascia that surrounds the adipose capsule and holds the kidneys to the posterior body wasll is called the

renal fascia

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the ducts that collect urine in the nephron are aptly called

collecting ducts

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"foot cells" that surround the glomerular endothelium and form the external portion of the filtration membrane are called

podocytes

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the substance that is filtered from glomerular blood plasma and seeps into the Bowman's capsule is now called

filtrate

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the combination of the capillary hydrostatic pressure, the capsular hydrostatic pressure and the blood colloid osmotic pressure, together are referred to as the

NFP or net filtration pressure

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the volume of filtrate formed each minute (125 mL/min)us called the

GFR or glomerular filtration pressure

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The cells "next to the glomerulus" that secrete renin are called _______-

JG cells

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The large ducts that drain (collect) filtrate from the distal convoluted tubules are called _____

collecting ducts

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Transepithelial reclamation of solutes is called

tubular reabsorption

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Reabsorption within the kidney tubules is called

reabsorption

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Passive, nonselective process in which hydrostatic pressure forces fluids and solutes through the filtration membrane is called

passive

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filtrationDiffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane from a less concentrated solution towards a more concentrated one is called

osmosis

(where sodium goes, water will follow)

65

inflammation of the entire kidney is called

enteritis

66

_______ & ________ are antidiuretic hormones (decrease water flow)

ACH & ADH

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_____ ___ excretes water that is pulled back into the sodium particles in the body

collecting ducts

68

tests for osmotic pressures/chemicals of substances

MD

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ascending limb actively pumpts out ____ & ___ ions

Sodium and Chloride

70

If there is not enough blood pressure coming in the JG cells release __________(enzyme.hormone

redin

71

angitension stimulates the release of ___

aldosterone

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Function of aldosterone is to ______

increase reabsorption of sodium in the collecting ducts

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Aldosterone makes watery dilute back into concentrate, which increases the blood pressure in glomarulus and then system sends message to stop releasing _________

redin

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Vasorecta are really slow pressure to ____

equal the pressure of concentrations

75

Aldosterone and ADH determine the _________ of urine.

concentration

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Purpose of CCK (coloncystokinn)

concentration of the call bladder-emulsification of lipids;
__________ digestion secretions of pancreas
relax HP sphincter

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The glomerular capillary pressure has to be higher 'cuz pressure in capsule needs to be higher to push fluid out of filtration or the ___and _ will both flow backwards and cause toxicity

capsular hydrostatic pressure (10mm Hg) &
blood colloid osmotic pressure (30 mm Hg)

78

Filtration is passive in the

glomerulus

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Tell about Inulin

carbohydrate (Polysaccharide);
it is never reabsorbed or secreted, but filters out and goes outside the body