A&P final part 1

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1

serves as the actual "trigger" for muscle contraction by removing theinhibition of the toponin molecules

calcium ions

2

a neurotransmitter released at motor end plates by the axon terminal

acetylcholine

3

diffusion across the cell membrane results in depolarization

sodium ions

4

used to convert ADP to ATP by transfer of a high-energy phosphate group. A reserve high-energy compound

creatine phosphate

5

destroys ACh

acetylcholinesterase

6

muscle that opposes and reverses the action of another muscle

antagonist

7

muscle that stabilizes the origin of another muscle

fixator

8

muscle that is primarily responsible for bringing about a particular movement

agonist

9

muscle that aids another by promoting the same movement

synergist

10

which muscle cells have the greatest ability to regenerate?
A) smooth
B) no muscle can regenerate
C) skeletal
D) cardiac

smooth

11

most skeletal muscles contain _______
A) a predominance of fast oxidative fibers
B) a mixture of fiber types
C) a predominance of slow oxidative fibers
D) muscle fibers of the same type

a mixture of fiber types

12

Myoglobin ______
A) is a protein involved in the direct phosphoylation of ADP
B) stores oxygen in muscle cells
C) Breaks down glycogen
D) produces the end plate potential

stores oxygen in muscle cells

13

What structure in skeletal muscle cells functions in calcium storage?
A) intermediate filament network
B) sarcoplasmic reticulum
C) myofibrillar network
D) mitochondria

sarcoplasmic reticulum

14

creatine phosphate functions in the muscle cell by ______
A) forming a chemical compound with actin
B) storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP
C) inducing a conformational change in the myofilaments
D) forming a temporary chemical compound with myosin

storing energy that will be transferred to ADP to resynthesize ATP

15

The major function of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscle contraction is to ______
A) synthesize actin and mysoin myofilaments
B) provide a source of myosin for the contraction proces
C) make and store phosphocreatine
D) regulate intracellular calcium concentration

regulate intracellular calcium concentration

16

During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to which active sites?
A) thick filaments
B) Myosin filaments
C) actin filaments
D) z discs

actin filaments

17

rigor mortis occurs because _____
A) no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules
B) proteins are beginning to break down, thus preventing a flow of calcium ions
C) sodium ions leak into the muscle causing continued contractions
D) the cells are dead

no ATP is available to release attached actin and myosin molecules

18

During vigorous exercise, there may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvic acid for energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to ______
A) lactic acid
B) stearic acid
C) hydrochloric acid
D) a strong base

lactic acid

19

what is the main factor that determines the power of a muscle?
A) the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
B) the length
C) the number of neurons innervating it
D) the shape

the total number of muscle cells available for contraction

20

When the term biceps, triceps, or quadriceps forms part of a muscle's name, what does it tell you about the muscle?
A) the muscle is able to change direction twice, three times, or four times faster that other muscles, respectively.
B) the muscle has two, three, or four origins respectively
C) the muscle has two, three, or four functions, respectively
D) the muscle has two, three, or four insertions, respectively

the muscle is able to change direction twice, three times, or four times faster that other muscles, respectively.

21

the names of muscles often indicate the action of the muscle. What does the term levator mean?
A) the muscle flexes and rotates a region
B) the muscle elevates
C) the muscle functions as a synergist
D) the muscle is a fixator and stabilizes a bone or joint

the muscle elevates

22

Which of the following describes the suprahyoid muscles?
A) they are a group of muscles that lie superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity
B) they move the pharynx superiorly during swallowing
C) they are often called strap muscles
D) they depress the larynx and hyoid bone if the mandible is fixed

they are a group of muscles that lie superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity

23

which of the following muscles inserts by the calcaneal tendon?
A) the tibialis anterior
B) the gastrocnemius
C) the sartorius
D) the semitendinosus

the gastrocnemius

24

a muscle that opposes, or reverses, a particular movement is a ______
A) antagonist
B) agonist
C) fixator
D) synergist

antagonist

25

what are the ciliated CNS neuroglia that play an active role in moving the cerebrospinal fluid called?
A) ependymal cells
B) oligodendrocytes
C) schwann cells
D) astrocytes

ependymal cells

26

which of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle?
A) norepinephrine
B) gamma aminobutyric acid
C) acetylcholine
D) cholinesterase

acetylcholine

27

The period after an inital stimulus when a neuron is not sensitive to another stimulus is the _____
A) resting period
B) repolarization
C) absolute refractory period
D) depolarization

absolute refractory period

28

the part of a neuron that conducts impulses away from its cell body is called a ____
A) axon
B) schwann cell
C) dendrite
D) neurolemma

axon

29

an impulse form one nerve cell is communicated to another nerve cell via the _____
A) cell body
B) effector
C) synapse
D) receptor

synapse

30

collections of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system are called
A) nuclei
B) tracts
C) ganglia
D) nerves

ganglia

31

the substance released at axon terminals to propagate a nervous impulse is called a
A) neurotransmitter
B) ion
C) cholinesterase
D) biogenic amine

neurotransmitter

32

only _____ muscle cells are always multinucleated

skeletal

33

the end of the muscle that typically moves when a muscle contracts is called the _____

insertion

34

the time in which cross bridges are active is called the period of _____

contraction

35

only _____ muscle cells commonly branch

cardiac

36

WHat is a muscle spasm?

twitch

37

The _____ is the main chewing muscle

masseter

38

The abnormal protrusion of the small intestine through a weak point in the muscle of the abdominal wall is called a _______

hernia

39

That part of the nervious system that is voluntary and conducts impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles is the ______ nervous system

somatic

40

neuroglia found in the CNS that bind axons and blood vessels to each other are called ______

astrocytes

41

When information is delivered with the CNS simultaneously by different parts of the neural pathway, the process is called _____ processing

parallel

42

connective tissue sheath surrounding individual muscle fibers

B

43

bundle of muscle cells surrounded by a perimysium

D

44

connective tissue covering the exterior of a muscle organ

A

45

conncetive tissue surrounding muscle fiber bundles

E

46

individual muscle fiber

C

47

Ion channel

E

48

Synaptic vesicles

C

49

calcium ions

A

50

postsynaptic membrane

B

51

synaptic cleft

D