chapter 25

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Microbiology
Chapter 25
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1

Which of the following is directly involved in the initiation of dental caries?

A) sucrose

B) lysozyme

C) lactic acid

D) crevicular fluid

E) dentin

c

2

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is usually preceded by

A) eating contaminated food.

B) a blood transfusion.

C) extended use of antibiotics.

D) improper food storage.

E) travel to an underdeveloped country.

c

3

Which of the following statements about salmonellosis is FALSE?

A) It is a bacterial infection.

B) Severity of disease depends on number of organisms ingested.

C) A healthy carrier state exists.

D) The mortality rate is high.

E) It is often associated with poultry products.

d

4

Disease-causing exotoxins are produced by all of the following organisms EXCEPT

A) Clostridium perfringens.

B) Vibrio cholerae.

C) Shigella dysenteriae.

D) Staphylococcus aureus.

E) Clostridium botulinum.

c

5

Which one of the following diseases of the gastrointestinal system is transmitted by the respiratory route?

A) staphylococcal enterotoxicosis

B) mumps

C) Vibrio gastroenteritis

D) bacillary dysentery

E) travelers diarrhea

b

6

The digestive tract is essentially one long tube. The order of the structures, beginning with the mouth, is

A) pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine.

B) esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small intestine, large intestine.

C) pharynx, esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine.

D) esophagus, stomach, pharynx, small intestine, large intestine.

E) pharynx, stomach, esophagus, small intestine, large intestine.

a

7

Which of the following helminthic diseases is a common infestation found in the southeastern United States?

A) Enterobius vermicularis

B) Ascaris lumbricoides

C) Taenia saginata

D) Trichuris trichiura

E) Echinococcus granulosus

b

8

Poultry products are a likely source of infection by

A) Helicobacter pylori.

B) Salmonella enterica.

C) Vibrio cholerae.

D) Shigella spp.

E) Clostridium perfringens.

b

9

All of the following infections can result from drinking contaminated water EXCEPT

A) Cyclospora infection.

B) giardiasis.

C) trichinellosis.

D) cholera.

E) cryptosporidiosis.

c

10

Which of the following organisms feeds on red blood cells?

A) Giardia lamblia

B) Escherichia coli

C) Taenia spp.

D) Vibrio parahaemolyticus

E) Entamoeba histolytica

e

11

In humans, beef tapeworm infestations are acquired by ingesting

A) the eggs of Taenia saginata.

B) segments of Taenia solium tapeworms.

C) water contaminated with Diphyllobothrium latum eggs.

D) cysticerci of Taenia saginata in undercooked meat.

E) cysticerci of Taenia solium in undercooked meat.

d

12

Which of the following statements about staphylococcal food poisoning is FALSE?

A) It is caused by ingesting an enterotoxin.

B) It can be prevented by adequate refrigeration of food.

C) It can be prevented by heating foods to 50C for 15 minutes.

D) It is treated by replacing water and electrolytes.

E) It is characterized by rapid onset and short duration of symptoms.

c

13

The most common cause of travelers diarrhea is

A) Shigella spp.

B) Salmonella enterica.

C) Giardia lamblia.

D) Escherichia coli.

E) Campylobacter jejuni.

d

14

Acute gastroenteritis that occurs after an incubation period of two to three days and commonly affects children is probably caused by

A) Giardia.

B) rotavirus.

C) Salmonella.

D) Staphylococcus aureus.

E) Trichinella.

b

15

Which of the following is mismatched?

A) hydatid disease humans are the definitive host

B) Taenia infestation humans are the definitive host

C) trichinellosis humans eat larva of parasite

D) pinworm infestation humans ingest parasites eggs

E) hookworm infestation parasite bores through skin

a

16

Thorough cooking of food will prevent all of the following EXCEPT

A) trichinellosis.

B) beef tapeworm.

C) staphylococcal food poisoning.

D) salmonellosis.

E) shigellosis.

c

17

Most of the normal microbiota of the digestive system are found in the

A) mouth.

B) stomach.

C) stomach and small intestine.

D) small intestine and large intestine.

E) accessory structures.

d

18

Gums bleeding while brushing ones teeth is most commonly associated with

A) halitosis.

B) cavities.

C) gingivitis.

D) periodontitis.

E) trench mouth.

c

19

Typhoid fever differs from salmonellosis in that in typhoid fever

A) the microorganisms multiply within macrophages.

B) the incubation period is much longer.

C) the symptoms are due to infection of the gallbladder.

D) infection is spread only in the feces of domesticated animals.

E) infection occurs due to ingestion of endospores.

b

20

Which of the following organisms is likely to be transmitted via contaminated shrimp?

A) Trichinella spiralis

B) Vibrio parahaemolyticus

C) Giardia lamblia

D) Clostridium perfringens

E) Staphylococcus aureus

b

21

Which of the following organisms is likely to be transmitted via undercooked pork and horse?

A) Salmonella enterica

B) Staphylococcus aureus

C) Trichinella spiralis

D) Entamoeba histolytica

E) Shigella spp.

c

22

A vaccine to provide active immunity to HBV is prepared from

A) viruses grown in tissue culture.

B) genetically modified yeast.

C) pooled gamma globulin.

D) viruses grown in embryonated eggs.

E) viral particles in patients

b

23

Aflatoxin is a(n) ________ associated with ingestion of contaminated ________.

A) mycotoxin; peanuts

B) mycotoxin; rye or other cereal grains

C) enterotoxin; peanuts

D) enterotoxin; rye or other cereal grains

E) endotoxin; peanuts

a

24

Which of the following causes inflammation of the liver?

A) Salmonella enterica

B) Shigella spp.

C) hepatitis A virus

D) Vibrio cholerae

E) Escherichia coli

c

25

Rice water stools are characteristic of

A) salmonellosis.

B) cholera.

C) bacillary dysentery.

D) amebic dysentery.

E) tapeworm infestation.

b

26

Epidemics related to bacterial infection of the digestive system are typically caused by

A) biological vectors.

B) contaminated food and water.

C) unpasteurized milk.

D) the respiratory route.

E) exposure to contaminated soil.

b

27

Many bacterial infections of the lower digestive tract are treated with

A) antitoxin.

B) penicillin.

C) water and electrolytes.

D) quinacrine.

E) thorough cooking.

c

28

Dental plaque is an example of

A) a pellicle.

B) a biofilm.

C) gingivitis.

D) dentin.

E) tooth enamel.

b

29

Which of the following is mismatched?

A) ergot gangrene

B) Salmonella endotoxin lyses red blood cells

C) Vibrio enterotoxin secretion of Cl, K+, and H2O

D) aflatoxin liver cancer

E) shiga toxin tissue destruction

b

30

Bacterial intoxications differ from bacterial infections of the digestive system in that intoxications

A) are transmitted via contaminated water.

B) are more severe.

C) have shorter incubation times.

D) are treated with antibiotics.

E) are accompanied by high fever.

c

31

The most common mode of HAV transmission is

A) contamination of food during preparation.

B) contamination of food before it reaches a food service establishment.

C) blood transfusion.

D) contaminated hypodermic needles.

E) airborne.

a

32

Which of the following correctly lists the stages of tooth decay?

A) plaque accumulation, destruction of enamel, advancement of decay through enamel, decay in dentin, decay in tooth pulp

B) decay in dentin, plaque accumulation, destruction of enamel, advancement of decay through enamel, decay in tooth pulp

C) plaque accumulation, destruction of enamel, decay in tooth pulp, advancement of decay through enamel, decay in dentin

D) destruction of enamel, advancement of decay through enamel, plaque accumulation, decay in dentin, decay in tooth pulp

E) destruction of enamel, plaque accumulation, advancement of decay through enamel, decay in dentin, decay in tooth pulp

a

33

A 38-year-old man had onset of fever, chills, nausea, and myalgia while vacationing on the Gulf of Mexico. On April 29, he had eaten raw oysters and gone wading in the warm coastal waters. On May 2, he was admitted to a hospital because of a fever of 39C and two circular necrotic lesions on the left leg. He had a history of alcoholic liver disease. He was transferred to the ICU; therapy with antibiotics was initiated. On May 4, he died. Which of the following is the most likely cause?

A) Bacillus cereus

B) Cyclospora cayetanensis

C) Salmonella typhi

D) Vibrio vulnificus

E) hepatitis C virus

d

34

Which of the following is included in GALT?

A) thymus

B) Peyers patches

C) tonsils

D) liver

E) salivary glands

b

35

Microscopic examination of a patients fecal culture shows spiral bacteria. The bacteria probably belong to the genus

A) Campylobacter jejuni.

B) Escherichia coli.

C) Salmonella typhi.

D) Shigella spp.

E) Vibrio cholerae.

a

36

Which of the following pertains to typhoid fever?

A) It is acquired via ingestion of contaminated meat.

B) Enterotoxin spreads via the blood.

C) It is caused by several different species of Salmonella.

D) Causative microorganism multiplies in patient phagocytes.

E) It is also called bacillary dysentery.

d

37

All of the following are gram-negative rods that cause gastroenteritis EXCEPT

A) Clostridium perfringens.

B) Escherichia coli.

C) Salmonella typhi.

D) Shigella spp.

E) Yersinia enterocolitica

a

38

Helicobacter pylori can grow in the stomach because it

A) hides in macrophages.

B) makes a capsule.

C) possesses an enzyme that neutralizes HCl.

D) makes HCl.

E) invades epithelial cells.

c

39

All of the following are eukaryotic organisms that cause diarrheal disease EXCEPT

A) Cryptosporidium.

B) Cyclospora.

C) Entamoeba.

D) Giardia.

E) Campylobacter.

e

40

All of the following pertain to pinworm infections EXCEPT

A) transmission is typically by contact with fomites or inhalation of eggs.

B) diagnosis is by detecting eggs on transparent tape pressed to the perianal area.

C) all family members living with the patient must also be treated.

D) it is most commonly transmitted by cysts in water.

E) it is a helminth disease.

d

41

What is a Dane particle?

A) the chlorine-resistant virus that causes HAV

B) the infectious virion that causes HBV

C) the spherical particles found in serum of patients with HBV

D) the filamentous particles that cause HAV

E) another name for an HBV surface antigen

b

42

Which of the following is mismatched?

A) beef E. coli O157:H7

B) custard and cream pies Staphylococcus aureus

C) eggs Trichinella spiralis

D) chicken Campylobacter jejuni

E) oysters Vibrio parahaemolyticus

c

43

In Situation 25.1, fecal samples should be cultured for all of the following EXCEPT

A) Salmonella enterica.

B) Shigella spp.

C) Campylobacter jejuni.

D) enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

E) Giardia lamblia.

e

44

) In Situation 25.1, fecal samples were found to be negative when cultured. The next step in diagnosing the cause of illness would be

A) to begin antibiotic therapy.

B) blood cultures.

C) microscopic examination of feces for oocysts.

D) microscopic examination of feces for viruses.

E) muscle biopsy.

c

45

The relative risks shown in Table 25.1 were calculated for foods suspected of transmitting Salmonella. Which food is the most likely source of infection?

A) black beans

B) corn soup

C) jalapeo peppers

D) roma tomatoes

E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

c