The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics

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1

Which of the following is correct?

  1. Arteries carry blood away from the heart.
  2. Elastic arteries have larger diameters than muscular arteries.
  3. Muscular arteries branch into arterioles.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

2

The sites of exchange between the blood and the tissues are the

  1. arteries
  2. arterioles
  3. capillaries
  4. venules
  5. veins

C

3

The blood supply of the larger blood vessels is called the

  1. capillary bed.
  2. vasa vasorum.
  3. peritubular capillary system.
  4. anastamosis.
  5. vasa recta

B

4

The blood vessels that drain blood directly from the capillary beds are the

  1. elastic arteries
  2. muscular arteries
  3. veins
  4. venules
  5. vena cavae

D

5

Which part of the arterial wall contains smooth muscle?

  1. tunica intima
  2. tunica media
  3. tunica externa
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

B

6

Which of the following does NOT cause vasodilation?

  1. increased sympathetic stimulation
  2. decreased sympathetic innervation
  3. increased H+ concentration
  4. increased lactic acid concentration
  5. increased NO concentration

A

7

All of the following are elastic arteries EXCEPT the:

  1. aorta
  2. brachiocephalic artery
  3. common iliac artery
  4. radial artery
  5. subclavian artery

D

8

Muscular arteries

  1. are also called conducting arteries.
  2. contain more smooth muscle than elastic fibers in the tunica media.
  3. include the tibial and popliteal arteries.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

B

9

Which blood vessels play a key role in regulating blood distribution and pressure because their diameters may be easily and rapidly adjusted?

  1. elastic arteries
  2. conducting arteries
  3. arterioles
  4. capillaries
  5. venules

C

10

Capillaries

  1. form more extensive beds in tissues that have greater metabolic rates.
  2. have a thick tunica media.
  3. receive blood from venules.
  4. drain into arterioles.
  5. are found in the cornea and in cartilage.

A

11

Sinusoids

  1. are straighter and narrower than other capillaries.
  2. are less porous than other capillaries.
  3. are found in the liver and red bone marrow.
  4. have no specialized lining cells.
  5. All of the above are correct.

C

12

Venules

  1. drain capillary beds.
  2. merge to form veins.
  3. provide exit points for phagocytic cells.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

13

Veins

  1. carry blood toward the heart.
  2. have thick layers of smooth muscle in the tunica media.
  3. have no valves.
  4. have thin layers of connective tissue in the tunica externa.
  5. carry blood under high pressure.

A

14

Anastomoses

  1. are unions of the branches of two or more veins supplying the same body region.
  2. are unions of the branches of two or more arteries, veins, or arterioles and vessels supplying the same body region.
  3. are unions of the branches of arteries and veins supplying the same body region
  4. are found only in the brain.
  5. are uncommon in the upper and lower extremities.

B

15

Place the following in the order in which blood flows through them, starting with the heart:

1. heart

2. veins

3. capillaries

4. arterioles

5. arteries

6. venules

  1. 1, 4, 5, 3, 6, 2
  2. 1, 5, 3, 4, 6, 2
  3. 1, 5, 4, 6, 3, 2
  4. 1, 5, 4, 3, 6, 2
  5. 1, 5, 4, 3, 2, 6

D

16

Which blood vessels act as blood reservoirs?

  1. arteries and arterioles
  2. arterioles and capillaries
  3. veins and venules
  4. venules and capillaries
  5. venules and arterioles

C

17

How do materials enter and leave capillaries?

  1. diffusion
  2. transcytosis
  3. bulk flow
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

18

How do most large, lipid-insoluble molecules move from the tissues into the capillaries?

  1. diffusion
  2. transcytosis
  3. bulk flow
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

B

19

Bulk flow

  1. is an active transport process.
  2. slowly moves small amounts of molecules across the plasma membrane.
  3. continues as long as a pressure gradient exists between the blood and the interstitial fluid.
  4. into the blood is called filtration.
  5. into the interstitial fluid is called reabsorption.

C

20

Which pressures contribute to filtration?

  1. blood hydrostatic pressure (BHP)
  2. interstitial fluid osmotic pressure (IFOP)
  3. blood colloidal osmotic pressure (BCOP)
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

D

21

How is net filtration pressure (NFP) calculated?

  1. (BCOP + BHP) – (IFOP + IFHP) = NFP
  2. (BHP + IFOP) – (BCOP + IFHP) = NFP
  3. (BCOP + IFOP) – (BCOP - IFHP) = NFP
  4. (BHP – BCOP) – (IFHP-IFOP) = NFP
  5. (BCOP – BHP) + (IFOP +IFHP) = NFP

B

22

Which of the following is correct?

  1. At the arteriole end of a capillary, the NFP favors movement of materials in to the capillary.
  2. At the venule end of a capillary, the NFP favors movement of materials out of the capillary.
  3. Some of the fluid that leaks out of a capillary is reabsorbed into lymphatic vessels.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

C

23

Which of the following is NOT true?

  1. Blood pressure is generated by the contraction of the atria.
  2. A systolic pressure of 110 mmHg in a resting young adult is probably normal.
  3. The pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures.
  4. The highest vascular blood pressure is observed in the aorta.
  5. The lowest vascular blood pressure is observed in the vena cavae entering the right atrium.

A

24

Mean arterial pressure (MAP)

  1. can be estimated by calculating [systolic BP + 1/4 (systolic BP – diastolic BP)].
  2. can be estimated by calculating (heart rate X resistance).
  3. is the average pressure in arteries.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

C

25

A patient with kidney trouble is unable to remove excess fluid from her blood. What effect will this disorder have on her blood pressure (BP) and why?

  1. increased BP, more fluid in the blood puts more hydrostatic pressure on the blood vessel walls
  2. increased BP, more fluid in the blood forces the heart to contract more forcefully
  3. increased BP, more fluid movement generates more friction and resistance
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

26

Which resistance factor is most important in controlling blood pressure?

  1. diameter of the arteriole lumen
  2. length of a blood vessel
  3. number of white blood cells/µL
  4. albumin content of plasma
  5. weight of the individual

A

27

Which of the following is NOT correct?

  1. Venous return is normally favored by the lack of blood pressure in the right atrium.
  2. Venous return is enhanced by pulmonary semilunar valve stenosis.
  3. Venous return is assisted by contractions of skeletal muscles.
  4. Venous return is assisted by the contractions of the diaphragm.
  5. Venous return is assisted by the presence of valves in the veins.

B

28

Which of the following is NOT true of the cardiovascular center?

  1. regulates blood vessel diameter.
  2. regulates heart rate.
  3. is located in the hypothalamus.
  4. regulates contractility of the ventricles.
  5. receives input from proprioceptors, chemoreceptors and baroreceptors.

C

29

After a frightening experience is over, how does the cardiovascular center return heart rate and blood pressure to normal values?

  1. by decreasing sympathetic impulses sent through the cardiac accelerator nerve
  2. by increasing parasympathetic impulses sent through the vagus nerve
  3. by increasing parasympathetic signals to the vasomotor nerves
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

D

30

Neural control of blood pressure depends upon

  1. sensory input from baroreceptors in the carotid and aortic sinuses.
  2. sensory input from the chemoreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies.
  3. cranial nerves IX and X relaying impulses to the cardiovascular center.
  4. the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic impulses from the cardiovascular center.
  5. All of these are correct.

E

31

Which of the following stimuli would NOT trigger a neural response to raise blood pressure?

  1. moving from an erect to a prone position
  2. decreased stretching of the carotid or aortic sinus
  3. decreased O2 detected by the carotid or aortic body
  4. increased CO2 detected by the carotid or aortic body
  5. decreased pH detected by the carotid or aortic body

A

32

Increased secretion of which of the following hormones would decrease blood pressure?

  1. aldosterone
  2. atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
  3. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  4. norepinephrine
  5. renin

B

33

Autoregulation of blood flow

  1. responds to metabolic demand by redirecting blood to the least active tissues.
  2. responds to warmth, a physical factor, by constricting arterioles.
  3. responds to chemical factors such as K+ and H+ by dilating arterioles.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

C

34

A pulse

  1. is caused by the expansion and recoil of elastic arteries after left ventricular contraction.
  2. can be palpated in a superficial artery briefly compressed against a hard underlying surface.
  3. of 120 represents tachycardia.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

35

A patient with a blood pressure of 180/120

  1. is hypertensive.
  2. has a pulse pressure of 60 mmHg.
  3. has a normal ratio of systolic:diastolic:pulse pressure.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

36

Sean has lost 15 pounds in two days due to severe diarrhea and vomiting. His skin is cool and clammy, his pulse is weak and rapid, his BP is 80/40 and he is conscious but not coherent. What can you predict based on this information?

  1. Sean is probably in hypovolemic shock.
  2. Sean’s renin, angiotensin and aldosterone levels are probably elevated.
  3. Sean’s ANP levels are probably elevated.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

D

37

The two main circulatory routes are the

  1. pulmonary and systemic circulations.
  2. pulmonary and coronary circulations.
  3. coronary and systemic circulations.
  4. coronary and cranial circulations.
  5. systemic and hepatic circulations

A

38

Systemic circulation

  1. carries oxygen-enriched blood from the right ventricle through the aorta to the body tissues.
  2. returns oxygen-depleted blood to the right atrium via the vena cavae or the coronary sinus.
  3. carries blood to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.
  4. takes venous blood from the gastrointestinal organs into the hepatic portal vein of the liver
  5. carries oxygen-depleted blood to the lungs from the left ventricle via the pulmonary trunk.

B

39

Why is less pressure needed to move blood through the pulmonary circulation than through the systemic circulation?

  1. Pulmonary arteries have large diameters.
  2. Pulmonary arteries have thinner walls and less elastic tissue than systemic arteries.
  3. Pulmonary arteries offer less resistance to blood flow than systemic arteries.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

40

Which of the following is NOT correct?

  1. The liver mixes oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the hepatic sinusoids.
  2. The liver receives blood directly from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen through a vein.
  3. The liver receives nutrients and oxygenated blood via the hepatic portal vein.
  4. The liver drains blood into the hepatic vein.
  5. The liver does not receive all of the umbilical vein blood in the fetus.

C

41

Which of the following correctly describes fetal circulation?

  1. It carries deoxygenated blood to the placenta via two umbilical veins.
  2. It brings oxygenated blood to the fetus via the umbilical artery.
  3. It directs blood away from the fetal liver via the ductus arteriosus.
  4. It bypasses fetal lungs via the foramen ovale and the incomplete atrial septum.
  5. All of these are correct.

D

42

The right and left coronary arteries are branches of the

  1. ascending aorta
  2. aortic arch
  3. thoracic aorta
  4. abdominal aorta
  5. usually the ascending aorta, but sometimes the aortic arch

A

43

The cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis) receives blood from the

  1. vertebral arteries via the basilar artery.
  2. internal carotid arteries.
  3. external carotid arteries.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

D

44

Place the following in the order that blood will move through them to reach the right side of the face from the heart.

1. ascending aorta

2. common carotid artery

3. brachiocephalic artery

4. external carotid artery

5. aortic arch

6. maxillary artery

  1. 1, 5, 3, 2, 4, 6
  2. 5, 1, 3, 2, 4, 6
  3. 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, 6
  4. 1, 5, 2, 3, 4, 6
  5. 1, 5, 3, 2, 6, 4

A

45

If the radial artery was damaged, blood could still reach the hand via the

  1. digital arteries.
  2. ulnar artery.
  3. subclavian artery.
  4. superficial palmar arch.
  5. common palmar digital artery.

B

46

Which of the following is NOT a branch of the abdominal aorta?

  1. celiac trunk
  2. superior mesenteric artery
  3. esophageal artery
  4. renal artery
  5. inferior mesenteric artery

C

47

How does blood from the inferior sagittal sinus return to the heart?

  1. external jugular vein, subclavian vein, brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava, heart
  2. internal jugular vein, brachiocephalic vein, subclavian vein, superior vena cava, heart
  3. external jugular vein, brachiocephalic vein, subclavian vein, superior vena cava, heart
  4. internal jugular vein, subclavian vein, brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava, heart
  5. internal jugular vein, subclavian vein, superior vena cava, brachiocephalic vein, heart

D

48

The vein that connects the right brachial vein to the right subclavian vein is the

  1. right axillary vein
  2. right brachiocephalic vein
  3. right radial vein
  4. right median cubital vein
  5. right ulnar vein

A

49

Which of the following is correct?

  1. Blood vessels develop from mesenchyme in areas called blood islands.
  2. Blood cells develop from mesenchyme.
  3. Blood cells are not produced by fetal bone marrow until the 12th week after conception.
  4. A and B are correct.
  5. A, B and C are correct.

E

50

Which of the following is NOT an anticipated effect of aging on the cardiovascular system?

  1. increased compliance of blood vessels
  2. increased systolic blood pressure
  3. decreased heart size
  4. decreased cardiac output
  5. increased incidence of coronary artery disease

A