Reproductive system

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1

Site where sperm are stored until they are ejaculated?

Tail of epididymis

2

Contained within the spermatic cord

testicular arteries and veins

3

Sperm is produced in the _____.

seminiferous tubule

4

The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. What role do they play?

they regulate the temperature of the testes

5

The cells thaat produce testosterone in the testis are called...

interstitial cells

6

Which portion of the penis is removed during circumcision?

Prepuce (foreskin)

7

Male acessory ducts transports both sperm cells and urine...

urethra

8

Does NOT emply material into the are of the prostatic urethra...

bulbo-urethral gland

9

The duct system of the male reproductive system does not include ...

corpus spongiosum

10

What glands responsible for about 70% of the volume of semen...

the seminal glands

11

Erection from the penis results from ....

a parasympathetic reflex

12

Why doesn't semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation?

The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes

13

What is the function of meiosis?

to produce cells with half the chromosome number of the original spermatogonium or oogonium

14

At what point during meiosis do homologous chromosomes pair up?

prophase I

15

What cells remain at the basal lamina to continue the pool of dividing germ cells?

type A daughter cells

16

Meiosis starts with a single diploid cell and produces

4 haploid cells

17

A cell preparing to undergo meiosis duplicates its chromosomes during

interphase

18

During prophase I of meiosis

homologous chromosomes stick togehter in pairs

19

Correct order of events during meiosis is...

prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, meiosis II

20

During meiosis, segments of nonsister chromatids can trade places. This recombinaiton of maternal and paternal genetic material is a key feature of meiosis. During what phase of meiosis does recombinaiton occur?

prophase I

21

The number of chromosomes in a human gamate is _____; this is referred to as a _____ chromosome number.

23; haploid

22

Does not occur during meiosis I

sister chromatids are separated from each other.

23

During spermatogenesis

the acrosome migrates towards the anterior end of the spermatid becasue its hydrolytic enzymes will be needed for penetration when the sperm contacts the egg during fertilization.

24

What reduces circulating blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) when sperm count is high?

inhibin

25

If gamates were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?

twice the number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur.

26

What is the testicular target for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)?

Inhibin

27

Which hormone promotes the formation of secondary sex characteristics such as the appearance of pubic, axillary, and facial hair; enhanced hair growth on the chest; and deepenin gof the voice?

Testosterone

28

What directly interferes with sperm production?

interruption by sustentocytes' produciton of ABP

29

The release of ______ encourages sustentocytes to release _____.

follicle-stimulating hormone; androgen-binding protein

30

Function of testosterone

stimulate the male pattern of development, stimulate protein synthesis, contribute to male sexual behavior and spermatogenesis.

31

Which hormone stimulates the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?

GnRH

32

A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such as that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grow to maturity, one would expect that he would .....

be sterile.

33

What female sex hormones is most responsible for estrogenic effects?

Estradiol

34

What part of the female system is the usual site for fertilization of the ovulated oocyte?

Uterine (fallopian) tube (oviduct)

35

Which layer of the uterus is made of smooth muscle?

Myometrium

36

The correct pathway of the egg after leaving the ovary and entering the uterine tube?

infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus, uterus

37

The ______ is shed during each menstruation and is then regenerated by the ______.

Stratum functionalis; stratum basalis

38

In cervical cancer, which cancer cells that cover the cervical tip are most likely to be abnormal?

Squamous epithelial cells

39

The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the _______.

uterine tubes

40

T/F

The uterine endometrium has a functional layer that the embryo will implant into.

True

41

T/F

The narrow portion of the uterus near the cervix is the most typical site of fertilization.

False

42

T/F

The myometrium of the uterine contracts to expell the fetus during child brith.

True

43

T/F

The uterine's rhythmic, reverse peristalsis can propel sperm toward the egg.

True

44

Which layer of the uterus is the site for implantation of a fertilized egg?

Stratum functionalis of the endometrium

45

What part of the breast produces milk?

alveoli

46

Cells released during ovulation...

secondary oocyte

47

What is the main difference between oogenesis and spermatogenesis in terms of meiosis?

The number of functional gametes produced in different.

48

T/F

Oocytes complete meiosis II before they are fertilized.

False-females are born with primary oocytes that are stalled in prophase I until puberty. At the onset of puberty the overies begin oogenesis. During oogenesis 3 polar bodies and one functional gamate are produced. Oogenesis is achieved through meiosis. However, the ovulated secondary oocyte arrests in metaphase II and does not complete meiosis until it is fertilized.

49

Why does only one egg, rather than four eggs, develop during oogenesis, given that spermatogenesis results in four sperm formed from one stem cell?

The unequal cytoplasmic division that results in one egg and three polar bodies ensures that a fertilized egg has ample nutrients for its journey to the uterus.

50

A surge _____ directly triggers ovulation.

luteinizing hormone (LH)

51

What is the site of FSH and LH stimulation after ovulation?

Corpus luteum

52

What event coincides with the transition from the proliferative phase to the secretory phase?

Ovulation

53

During what phase of the female's uterine cycle is the uterine lining shed?

Menstrual phase

54

Oral contraceptive pill, contains estrogen and progesterone or a synthetic mimic of this hormone. The combination of these two hormones work because...

they mimic the activities of pregnancy and disrupt the ovarian cycle, preventing ovulation.

55

Normally menstruation occurs when ______.

blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease.

56

The uterine cycle...

if fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo

57

Hormonal events of the ovarian cycle

positive feedback on the pituitary causes a spike in LH release which triggers ovulation.

58

Uterine cycle

-causes a decrease in the levels of ovarian hormones signal menstruation.

-the corpus luteum is formed from the ruptured follicle after ovulation.

-estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle.

59

What is an effect of estrogen in females?

promotes oogenesis