Pregnancy and fetal development

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 1 year ago by Ms_Arnold
765 views
updated 1 year ago by Ms_Arnold
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Once sperm are deposited into the vagina, sperm motility must be enhanced and they must be prepared torelease hydrolytic enzymes from their acrosomes. What is this process called?

Capacitation

2

Just inside the oocyte membrane represent vesicles containing calcium ions that are spilled into the extracellular space to prevent polyspermy. When does this take place?

Just after the sperm's head enters the oocyte membrane.

3

What is the first barrier that must be penetrated by the sperm in order to fertilize and oocyte?

Corona radiata (first coronas then comes the baby)

4

What is the name for the period of time that extends from the last menstrual period until birth, which is approximately 280 days?

gestation period

5

What destroys the zone pellucida sperm-binding receptors?

zonal inhibiting proteins

6

The result of polyspermy in humans is _____.

a nonfunctional zygote.

7

It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until after _____.

they undergo capacitation.

8

How long is the secondary oocyte viable and capable of being fertilized after it is ovulated?

12-24 hours

9

T/F

Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment.

True

10

Oocyte

egg

11

Zygote

fertilized egg

12

_____ implants in the mucosa of the endometrium.

Blastocyte

13

The 4-cell stage occurs 2 days after fertilization. How much time passes between the 4-cell stage and implantation?

5 days

14

The correct sequence of preembryonic structures is ______.

zygote, morula, blastocyst

15
card image

Which of the following is the multinuclear cytoplasmic mass formed from the outer layer of the trophoblast as it implants into the endometrium?

syncytiotrophoblast

16

The correct sequence of development from zygote to embryo...

cleavage, morula, blastocyst, gastrula

17

Secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

trophoblast

18

This extra-embryonic membrane is formed from the trophoblast after implantation...

chorion

19

Together, what do the decider basalis and the chorionic villi form?

Placenta

20

What is the innermost (closest) structure that envelops the embryo?

Amnion

21

T/F

The embryo's blood supply mixes with that of the mother.

False

22

T/F

Blood from the fetus travels to the placenta via vessels in the umbilical cord.

True

23

T/F

The extraembryonic coelom lies between the chorion and the amnion.

True

24

T/F

The yolk sac is the source for the earliest blood cells and blood vessels.

True

25

The placenta, a vitally important metabolic organ, is made up of the contribution from mother and fetus. Which portion is from the fetus?

Chorion

26

Decidua basalis

Forms the mother's part of the placenta.

27

Inner cell mass

Becomes the embryonic disc.

28

Trophoblast

Forms the chorion.

29

Decidua capsularis

Surrounds the uterine cavity face of the implanted embryo.

30

Morula

A solid sphere of undifferentiated cells.

31

Which hormone maintains the viability fo the corpus luteum?

hCG

32

What may pass through the placental barriers?

nutrients, respiratory gases, wastes, alcohol

33

If implantation is successful?

The corpus luteum is maintained until the placenta takes over its hormone-producing functions.

34

From what germ layer are the serosae of the peritoneal cavity (coelom) derived?

Mesoderm

35

Epithelial layers arise from teh endoderm...

alveolar cells of the lungs

36

Which germ layer gives rise to the nervous system?

Ectoderm

37

The fetal vascular shunt directly connects the right atrium to the left atrium to bypass the nonfuctional lungs is called _____.

foramen ovale.

38

Which fetal vessels or shunts will become the medial umbilical ligaments in the newborn?

umbilical arteries

39

_______ takes oxygenated blood to the liver from the placenta?

Umbilical vein

40

What is the primary germ layer that forms the basis for the musculoskeletal system?

Mesoderm

41

The foramen oval and the ductus arteriosus are both examples of _______.

pulmonary bypass shunts, which serve to bypass the lungs.

42

The formation of the endodermal and ectodermal germ layers occurs at _____.

gastrulation.

43

The first major event in organogenesis is _____.

neurulation.

44

Cells of the _______ gather around the notochord and neural tube and produce the vertebra and rib at their associated level.

sclerotome

45

What does the hormone relaxin promote?

Promotes the widening & increases flexibility of the pelvis ligaments and pubic symphysis.

46

Because of the increased bulkiness of the anterior abdomen and the change in a pregnant woman's center of gravity, what type of spinal curvature do many pregnant women develop?

Excessive lordosis of the lumbar spine.

47

A dangerous complication of prenancy called _____ results in an insufficient placentl blood supply, which can starve a fetus of oxygen. The pregnant woman becomes edematous and hypertensive, and proteinuria occurs.

preeclampsia

48

Which body system of a pregnant woman undergoes the most dramatic physiological changes during pregnancy?

cardiovascular system

49

What role does oxytocin play in promoting labor?

Stimulates the uterus to contract

50

What serve(s) as the trigger to begin the vigorous, rhythmic contractions of true labor?

prostaglandins

51

What tends to initiate Braxton Hicks contractions, or "false labor"?

estrogens

52

How long does the expulsion stage typically last in the first birth?

50 mins

53

During what stage is the afterbirth delivered?

placental stage

54

During which stage does the amnion rupture, and event also known as the mother's "water breaking"?

dilation stage

55

T/F

Surfactant production in premature infants is rarely a factor in providing normal respiratory activity.

False

56

Milk ejection (the let-down reflex) is stimulated by which of the following hormones associated with pregnancy?

oxytocin

57

Prior to the let-down reflex, the mammary gangs secrete a yellowish fluid called _____ that has less lactose than milk and almost no fat.

colostrum