Bio Ch.29

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1

1) Which of the following could occur only after plants moved from the oceans to land?
A) Animals could also move onto land because there were opportunities for new food sources. B) Animals could also move onto land because they had easier access to nitrogen.
C) Cyanobacteria could also move onto land because their host plants occurred there.
D) Plants in the oceans were able to evolve forms that lived in much deeper parts of the oceans.

A) Animals could also move onto land because there were opportunities for new food sources

2

According to the fossil record, plants colonized terrestrial habitats ________. A) in conjunction with insects that pollinated them
B) in conjunction with fungi that helped provide them with nutrients from the soil C) to escape abundant herbivores in the oceans

D) only about 150 million years ago

B) in conjunction with fungi that helped provide them with nutrients from the soil

3

The most direct ancestors of land plants were probably ________. A) kelp (brown alga) that formed large beds near the shorelines
B) green algae
C) photosynthesizing prokaryotes (cyanobacteria)

D) liverworts and mosses

B) green algae

4

About 450 million years ago, the terrestrial landscape on Earth would have ________. A) looked very similar to that of today, with flowers, grasses, shrubs, and trees
B) been completely bare rock, with little pools that contained cyanobacteria and protists C) been covered with tall forests in swamps that would become today's coal

D) had non-vascular, green plants similar to liverworts forming green mats on rock

D) had non-vascular, green plants similar to liverworts forming green mats on rock

5

What evidence do paleobotanists look for that indicates the movement of plants from water to land?
A) waxy cuticle to decrease evaporation from leaves
B) loss of structures that produce spores

C) sporopollenin to inhibit evaporation from leaves
D) remnants of chloroplasts from photosynthesizing cells

A) waxy cuticle to decrease evaporation from leaves

6

Which of these events, based on plant fossils, came last (most recently)? A) extensive growth of gymnosperm forests
B) colonization of land by early liverworts and mosses
C) rise and diversification of angiosperms

D) carboniferous swamps with giant horsetails and lycophytes

C) rise and diversification of angiosperms

7

Why have biologists hypothesized that the first land plants had a low, sprawling growth habit? A) They were tied to the water for reproduction, thus needing to remain in close contact with the moist soil.
B) The ancestors of land plants, green algae, lacked the structural support to stand erect in air.

C) Land animals of that period were small and could not pollinate tall plants. D) There was less competition for space, so they simply spread out flat.

B) The ancestors of land plants, green algae, lacked the structural support to stand erect in air.

8

Spores and seeds have basically the same function—dispersal—but are vastly different because spores ________.
A) have a protective outer covering; seeds do not
B) have an embryo; seeds do not

C) have stored nutrition; seeds do not
D) are unicellular; seeds are not

D) are unicellular; seeds are not

9

You find a green organism in a pond near your house and believe it is a plant, not an alga. The mystery organism is most likely a plant and not an alga if it ________.
A) contains chloroplasts
B) is surrounded by a cuticle

C) does not contain vascular tissue
D) has cell walls that are comprised largely of cellulose

B) is surrounded by a cuticle

10

Retaining the zygote on the living gametophyte of land plants ________. A) protects the zygote from herbivores
B) evolved concurrently with pollen
C) helps in dispersal of the zygote

D) allows it to be nourished by the parent plant

D) allows it to be nourished by the parent plant

11

The structural integrity of bacteria is to peptidoglycan as the structural integrity of plant spores is to ________.
A) lignin
B) cellulose

C) secondary compounds
D) sporopollenin

D) sporopollenin

12

According to our current knowledge of plant evolution, which group of organisms should feature cell division most similar to that of land plants?
A) some unicellular green algae
B) some cyanobacteria

C) some charophytes
D) some red algae

C) some charophytes

13

Which taxon is essentially equivalent to the "embryophytes"? A) Plantae
B) Pterophyta
C) Bryophyta

D) Charophycea

A) Plantae

14

If the kingdom Plantae is someday expanded to include the charophytes (stoneworts), then the shared derived characteristics of the kingdom will include ________.
A) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes and ability to synthesize sporopollenin
B) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes, chlorophylls a and b, and alternation of generations

C) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes, alternation of generations, and ability to synthesize sporopollenin
D) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes, chlorophylls a and b, cell walls of cellulose, and ability to synthesize sporopollenin

A) rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes and ability to synthesize sporopollenin

15

Which of the following environmental factors probably helped early plants to successfully colonize land?
A) a decreased availability of CO2
B) relatively few competitors for light

C) an increased availability of symbiotic partners
D) air's relative lack of support, compared to water's support

C) an increased availability of symbiotic partners

16

A student encounters a pondweed that appears to be a charophyte. Which of the following features would help the student determine whether the sample comes from a charophyte or from some other type of green alga?
A) molecular structure of enzymes inside the chloroplasts and presence of phragmoplasts

B) molecular structure of enzymes inside the chloroplasts and rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes
C) structure of sperm cells and presence of phragmoplasts
D) structure of sperm cells, presence of phragmoplasts, and rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes

D) structure of sperm cells, presence of phragmoplasts, and rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes

17
card image

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In the figure, which number represents the mature gametophyte? A) 1

B) 3
C) 7
D) 11

C) 7

18
card image

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In the figure, which number represents an embryo? A) 1
B) 3
C) 7

D) 11

D) 11

19
card image

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In the figure, meiosis is most likely to be represented by which number(s)? A) 2
B) 4
C) 2 and 8

D) 10 and 12

B) 4

20
card image

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

Which number represents a megaspore mother cell in the figure? A) 1
B) 3
C) 5

D) 7

B) 3

21

The following question refers to the generalized life cycle for land plants shown in the figure. Each number within a circle or square represents a specific plant or plant part, and each number over an arrow represents meiosis, mitosis, or fertilization.

In the figure, the process labeled "6" involves ________. A) mitosis
B) meiosis
C) fertilization

D) binary fission

A) mitosis

22

The fact that both charophytes and green plants contain chlorophylls a and b demonstrates which of the following?
A) These derived traits show that green plants evolved from ancient charophytes.
B) These shared traits show that green plants evolved from present-day charophytes.

C) The common ancestor of these two groups contained chlorophylls a and b. D) These two groups are not closely related.

C) The common ancestor of these two groups contained chlorophylls a and b.

23

Which of the following statements about the transition from ocean to land by plants is most likely to be accurate?
A) The transition to land occurred within a few generations.
B) The transition to land was likely gradual, with plants evolving traits that let them survive ever-drier conditions.

C) Rising sea levels favored individuals that were able to survive ever-drier conditions. D) The high light levels of terrestrial systems favored individuals that contained flexible

photosynthetic enzyme systems.

B) The transition to land was likely gradual, with plants evolving traits that let them survive ever-drier conditions.

24

Which of the following statements about the zygotes of plants is most likely to be accurate? A) Protection of the zygote from the drying effects of air was important.
B) Protection of the zygote from competitors for light was more important in air than in water. C) Zygotes in plants are more independent of parental tissue than are algal zygotes.

D) Zygotes in plants are more likely to germinate quickly after release from the parent plant than are zygotes released from algal organisms.

A) Protection of the zygote from the drying effects of air was important.

25

If animals had alternation of generations like plants, ________.
A) they would have twice as rapid a population growth rate as compared to their current rates B) the products of mitosis would undergo meiosis
C) the products of meiosis would immediately fuse to form a zygote and then undergo mitosis D) the products of meiosis would undergo mitosis and become multicellular

D) the products of meiosis would undergo mitosis and become multicellular

26

Apical meristems ________.
A) occur only in shoots of plants
B) occur only in roots of plants
C) occur in both roots and shoots of plants
D) allow plants to move from one place to

C) occur in both roots and shoots of plants

27

Which of the following statements about stomata is accurate?
A) Stomata are not important in algae because they do not need CO2.
B) Stomata, when closed, allow CO2 to diffuse into plants.
C) Stomata are important in terrestrial plants because they allow the roots to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
D) Stomata are important in terrestrial plants because they allow CO2 to diffuse into the plant.

D) Stomata are important in terrestrial plants because they allow CO2 to diffuse into the plant.

28

The presence of vascular tissue allowed plants to ________.
A) absorb nutrients from the soil and form a symbiosis with fungi
B) transport nutrients and water from below-ground tissues to above-ground tissues and grow taller
C) transport nutrients and water from below-ground tissues and use them to protect developing embryos
D) release toxins into the soil that reduced competition with other plants by poisoning nearby plants

B) transport nutrients and water from below-ground tissues to above-ground tissues and grow taller

29

Bryophytes (non-vascular plants) ________.
A) are more similar to ancestral green algae than are vascular plants
B) are more similar to ancestral red algae than are vascular plants
C) can be included in the grade monilophyte because they do not have a complex vascular system
D) are evolutionarily more advanced than seed plants

A) are more similar to ancestral green algae than are vascular plants

30

Grades, as opposed to clades, ________.
A) indicate degrees of evolutionary relatedness B) show relatedness among living organisms
C) are almost always monophyletic
D) represent groups with similar traits

D) represent groups with similar traits

31

31) Stomata ________.
A) occur in all land plants and define them as a monophyletic group B) open to allow gas exchange and close to decrease water loss
C) occur in all land plants and are the same as pores
D) open to increase both water absorption and gas exchange

B) open to allow gas exchange and close to decrease water loss