Ch 29.1

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1

Small plants , fungi , animals on land

500 million years

2

Cyanobacteria & Protists on land

1.2 billion years ago

3

Since colonizing land how many species have plants diversified into

290,000 living species

4

Traits of chalorphytes & plants

Rings of cellulose synthesizing proteins, structure of flagellated sperm, formation of phragmoplast

5

Benefits of move to land

Unfiltered sunlight , plentiful CO2, nutrient rich soil

6

Challenges of moving to land

Scarcity of water , structural support against gravity

7

Sporopollein

Prevents desication

8

Alternating generations in plants

Gameophyte (n) mitosis , sporophyte (2n) meiosis

9

Derived traits of plants

Alternation of G

multicelluar dependent embryos ( embryophytes )

walled spores produced sporangia

multicellular gametangia

apical meristems

10

Apical meristems

You cut it and it keeps growing

11

Male gametangia

Antheridia

12

Female gametangia

Archegonia

13

Additional derived traits of plants

Cuticle (waxing covering)

stromata (gas exchange )

14

Are bryophytes monophyletic

no paraphyletic

15

are bryophytes vascular

no non-vascular