Anatomy Final-CH28

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1

Once sperm are deposited into the vagina, sperm motility must be enhanced and they must be prepared to release hydrolytic enzymes from their acrosomes. What is this process called?

capacitation

2

Which of the following occurs 21-30 weeks into pregnancy, during the fetal period?

Blood cell production in the bone marrow.

3

Proteases and acrosin are enzymes. How do they function in reproduction?

They act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to penetrate.

4

correct statement about fertilization

Millions of sperm cells are destroyed by the vagina's acidic environment.

5

A zygote is usually formed within the uterus.

false

6

Together, what do the decidua basalis and the chorionic villi form?

placenta

7

Implantation begins six to seven days after ovulation.

true

8

Which germ layer gives rise to the nervous system?

ectoderm

9

Which of the following INCORRECTLY matches an embryonic structure with its function?

yolk sac: provides nutrients to developing embryo

10

Muscle tissue is formed by the ________.

mesoderm

11

Of the three germ layers, the mesoderm forms the most body parts.

true

12

Which fetal vascular shunt directly connects the right atrium to the left atrium so as to bypass the nonfunctional lungs?

foramen ovale

13

What does the hormone relaxin promote?

Relaxin promotes the widening and increased flexibility of the pelvic ligaments and pubic symphysis.

14

Because of the increased bulkiness of the anterior abdomen and the change in a pregnant woman's center of gravity, what type of spinal curvature do many pregnant women develop?

excessive lordosis of the lumbar spine

15

Which of the following is the primary germ layer that forms the basis for the musculoskeletal system?

mesoderm

16

Which of the following occurs 9-12 weeks into pregnancy, during the fetal period?

Sex is readily detected by observing the genitals.

17

Teratogens may cause anatomical abnormalities in an embryo, but do not cause anatomical abnormalities in a pregnant woman because ______.

organogenesis does not occur in an adult

18

Which body system of a pregnant woman undergoes the most dramatic physiological changes during pregnancy?

cardiovascular system

19

What role does oxytocin play in promoting labor?

Oxytocin stimulates the uterus to contract.

20

The placenta and its attached fetal membranes are collectively called the afterbirth.

true

21

What does the ductus arteriosus become at birth?

ligamentum arteriosum

22

During pregnancy, which hormone is responsible for stimulating maturation of the breast for lactation?

human placental lactogen (hPL)

23

leads to the development of a morula and then a blastocyst

cleavage

24

embedding of the blastula in the uterine wall

implantation

25

leads to the formation of the first cell of the new individual
fertilization

fertilization

26

leads to the establishment of the three primary germ layers

gastrulation

27

Leads to enhancement of sperm motility and increasing membrane fragility to enable enzyme release from acrosomes.

capacitation