Anatomy Final-CH26

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1

In which compartment of the body is the majority of water stored?

intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment

2

What is the most common cation found in the interstitial fluid?

Sodium

3

What is the most abundant intracellular cation?

Potassium

4

The majority of the fluid in the body is the __________.

intracellular fluid

5

Which of the following describes the distribution of sodium and potassium between cells and body fluids?

K+ mainly in the cells, Na+ in the body fluids

6

Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human body.

false

7

What accounts for the route through which most fluid is lost in a day?

urine

8

Which of the following is NOT involved in triggering the thirst mechanism?

increase in blood pressure

9

What hormone helps to maintain correct extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolality when concentrations become too high?

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

10

Which of the following conditions promotes edema?

hypoproteinemia

11

What results from increased levels of aldosterone?

increased Na+ reabsorption

12

Which of the following does NOT impact how much sodium is reabsorbed?

transport maximum of the renal proximal tubule

13

what impact how much sodium is reabsorbed?

transport maximum of the renal proximal tubule

14

Although the sodium content of the body may be altered, its concentration in the ECF remains relatively stable because of immediate adjustments in water volume.

true

15

Of the three buffering mechanisms in the body, which is the strongest?

renal system

16

The bicarbonate buffer system is one of the chemical buffer systems of the body. How would the bicarbonate buffer system work if sodium hydroxide were added to a solution?

A hydrogen on carbonic acid would dissociate and join the hydroxyl group on the base to form water and sodium bicarbonate.

17

The respiratory system is one of the three systems that regulate acid-base balance in the body. How does it work to decrease an acidosis?

Carbonic acid is broken down into water and CO2; the CO2 is then exhaled.

18

In a respiratory acidosis the kidney would do which of the following?

The kidney would reabsorb bicarbonate and secrete hydrogen ions.

19

Ingesting too much antacid would cause which of the following acid-base disturbances?

metabolic alkalosis

20

Vomiting will cause which type of acid-base disturbance?

metabolic alkalosis

21

Severe anxiety would cause which type of acid-base disturbance? What would be the compensation?

respiratory alkalosis; kidneys would excrete HCO3

22

A falling blood pH and a rising partial pressure of carbon dioxide due to pneumonia or emphysema indicates ________.

respiratory acidosis

23

The single most important blood buffer system is the bicarbonate buffer system.

true

24

The normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45.

true