Anatomy Final-Ch18

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1

Into which chamber of the heart do the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus return deoxygenated blood?

right atrium

2

The left side of the heart pumps blood to the body and is therefore considered the systemic circuit pump.

true

3

The right side of the heart pumps oxygen-poor blood to the lungs to be re-oxygenated. For this reason, the right side of the heart is considered the pulmonary circuit pump.

true

4

Cardiac tamponade results in ineffective pumping of blood by the heart because the excessive amount of fluid in the pericardial cavity will______.

prevent the heart from filling properly with blood

5

What causes heart sounds?

heart valve closure

6

The myocardium receives its blood supply from the coronary arteries.

true

7

What structures connect the individual heart muscle cells?

intercalated discs

8

Isovolumetric relaxation and ventricular filling (two phases of the cardiac cycle) take place during __________.

ventricular diastole

9

The majority of ventricular filling is caused by contraction of the atria.

true

10

Most blood flows passively into the ventricles through open AV valves.

false

11

Describe the pressures in the atria and ventricles that would cause the opening of the AV valves.

Pressure in the atria would be greater than the pressure in the ventricles.

12

What causes the aortic semilunar valve to close?

greater pressure in the aorta than in the left ventricle

13

Put the phases of the cardiac cycle in the correct order, starting after ventricular filling.

isovolumetric contraction, ventricular ejection, isovolumetric relaxation

14

Increased pressure in the ventricles would close what valve(s)?

AV valves only

15

In what direction does blood flow through the heart?

Blood moves through the heart from atria to ventricles and out large arteries, always from areas of high pressure to areas of lower pressure through one-way valves.

16

Atrial pressure is greater than ventricular pressure during which phase of the cardiac cycle?

atrial contraction

17

At what point during the cardiac cycle does the AV valve close?

when ventricular pressure becomes greater than atrial pressure

18

At what point in the cardiac cycle does the semilunar valve open?

when ventricular pressure becomes greater than aortic pressure

19

Ventricular pressure is greater than aortic pressure during which phase of the cardiac cycle?

ventricular ejection

20

At what point in the cardiac cycle does the semilunar valve close?

when pressure in the ventricle becomes less than aortic pressure

21

Isovolumetric relaxation is characterized by which of the following?

The semilunar and AV valves are closed.

22

At what point in the cardiac cycle does the AV valve open?

when atrial pressure becomes greater than ventricular pressure

23

Which portion of the electrocardiogram represents the depolarization wave received by the atria from the sinoatrial (SA) node?

P Wave

24

What is the period during the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are completely closed and blood volume in them remains constant as the ventricles contract?

isovolumetric contraction phase

25

Which of the following increases stroke volume?

exercise increases venous return, which would in turn increase the amount of blood in the presystolic ventricle (preload).

26

Which of these is a condition marked by premature ventricular contraction?

extrasystole

27

The P wave on an electrocardiogram represents __________.

atrial depolarization

28

What best describes afterload?

back pressure exerted by arterial blood

29

The second heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle?

isovolumetric relaxation

30

As pressure in the aorta rises due to atherosclerosis, more ventricular pressure is required to open the aortic valve.

true

31

the superior vena cava

carries oxygen-poor venous blood from above the diaphragm from areas of the upper body and extremities into the right atrium.

32

the coronary sinus

carries oxygen-poor venous blood of the coronary circulation into the right atrium.

33

the inferior vena cava

carries oxygen-poor venous blood from below the diaphragm from the areas of the lower body and extremities into the right atrium.

34

Assume that blood is flowing from the coronary sinus to the lung capillaries. Place the anatomical labels in order of flow

right atrium -> tricuspid valve -> right ventricle -> pulmonary semilunar valve ->pulmonary trunk -> pulmonary arteries

35

from left to right, in order of blood flow of oxygen-rich blood into the heart.

Lung capillaries-> Pulmonary veins-> Left atrium-> Mitral/bicuspid valve-> Left ventricle-> Aortic/semilunar valve

36

mitral (bicuspid) valve

The structure that prevents backflow of blood into the left atrium

37

aorta

The vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood to tissues

38

systemic capillaries

The capillaries receiving blood flow from the left side of the heart

39

aortic semilunar valve

The structure that is located anatomically between the aorta and the left ventricle

40

Arrange these elements of the intrinsic conduction system in the order that a depolarizing impulse travels during a normal heartbeat.

SA node-> Internodal pathways-> AV node-> AV bundle->Bundle branches-> Purkinje fibers

41

AV Bundle

Electrical link(s) between atria and ventricles

42

Purkinje Fibers

Convey(s) the impulse throughout the ventricular walls

43

Internodal Pathways

Link(s) between the SA node and AV node

44

AV Node

Delay(s) occurs here while atria contract

45

Bundle Branches

Convey(s) the impulse down the interventricular septum

46

SA Node

Set(s) the pace for the entire heart

47

Which part of the intrinsic conduction system normally initiates the depolarizing impulse that causes a heartbeat?

SA node

48

Which of these structures conduct(s) action potentials the slowest?

AV Node

49

At what point in the cardiac cycle is pressure in the ventricles the highest (around 120 mm Hg in the left ventricle)?

ventricular systole

50

During which of these stages are the pulmonary and aortic valves open?

phase 2b

51

Which best describe the isovolumetric contraction phase of the cardiac cycle?

As ventricular systole start, the AV valves are closed and the semilunar valves are closed. Because the ventricles are contracting and both valves are closed, pressure increases rapidly leading to ejection.

52

As your muscles contract during activity, more blood is returned to the heart. Which variable would be affected and what would be the outcome of this action?

Preload would be increased, which would increase cardiac output.

53

Which chamber of the heart has the highest probability of being the site of a myocardial infarction?

left ventricle

54

The atrioventricular (AV) valves prevent backflow of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction.

true

55

Name the ridged bundles of muscle found projecting inside the right atrium.

Pectinate muscles

56

Identify the right atrioventricular valve

pulmonary valve

57

Identfiy the valve located at the exit of the right ventricle.

pulmnary semilunar valve

58

The moderator band is found on both the right and left side of the heart.

true

59

Oxygenated blood flows through the right side of the heart.

false

60

Identify the most muscular chamber.

left ventricle

61

Name the inner lining of the heart.

Endocardium

62

Identify the valve found between the left atrium and left ventricle.

Bicuspid (mitral) valve

63

What heart chamber pushes blood through the aortic semilunar valve?

left entricle

64

Name the needle like ridges of muscle lining the ventricles.

Trabeculae carneae

65

What fibrous structure functions to anchor the atrioventricular valves in a closed position?

Chordae tendineae

66

Blood on the right never mixes with blood on the left, once the heart is fully developed.

true

67

What is the function of the coronary circulation?

Provide a blood supply to the heart

68

What is the ligamentum arteriosum?

A remnant of the ductus arteriosus

69

Which chamber of the heart exits into the pulmonary trunk?

Right ventricle

70

Identify the ear like flaps that are attached to the top chambers of the heart.

Auricle

71

The first branch off the arch of the aorta is the brachiocephalic artery in both the sheep and the human.

true

72

The base of the heart is located at the bottom of the heart.

false

73

The left side of the heart pumps the same volume of blood as the right.

false

74

If the aorta and pulmonary trunk were switched, oxygen rich blood would be pumped from the left ventricle to the lungs.

true