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Exercise 29A: Blood

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created 4 years ago by jncanf
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Exercise 29A pg. 437 - 441 Im making these notecards to help, so if you use them, please sign up and help add more notecards! And dont forget to rate my helpfulness!!

updated 4 years ago by jncanf

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1

WHAT IS THE BLOOD VOLUME OF AN AVERAGE MALE?

5 - 6 LITERS

2

WHAT IS THE BLOOD VOLUME OF AN AVERAGE FEMALE?

4 - 5 LITERS

3

WHAT DETERMINES WHETHER BLOOD IS BRIGHT RED OR DULL BRICK RED?

CIRCULATING BLOOD IS A RATHER VISCOUS SUBSTANCE THAT VARIES IN COLOR DEPENDING ON THE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN IT IS CARRYING. THE HIGHER THE OXYGEN LEVELS THE BRIGHTER THE COLOR.

4

MOST NUMEROUS LEUKOCYTE

NEUTROPHIL

5

GRANULOCYTES (3)

NEUTROPHIL, EOSINOPHIL, BASOPHIL

6

ALSO CALLED AN ERYTHROCYTE; ANUCLEATE FORMED ELEMENT

RED BLOOD CELL

7

ACTIVELY PHAGOCYTIC LEUKOCYTES (2)

NEUTROPHIL, MONOCYTE

8

AGRANULOCYTES (2)

LYMPHOCYTE, MONOCYTE

9

ANCESTRAL CELL OF PLATELETS

MEGAKARYOCYTE

10

RED BLOOD CELL, MEGAKARYOCYTE, EOSINOPHIL, BASOPHIL, MONOCYTE, NEUTROPHIL, AND LYMPHOCYTE ARE ALL EXAMPLES OF?

FORMED ELEMENTS

11

NUMBER RISES DURING PARASITE INFECTIONS

EOSINOPHIL

12

RELEASES HISTAMINE; PROMOTES INFLAMMATION

BASOPHIL

13

MANY FORMED IN LYMPHOID TISSUE

LYMPHOCYTE

14

TRANSPORTS OXYGEN

RED BLOOD CELL

15

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16

PRIMARILY WATER, NONCELLULAR; THE FLUID MATRIX OF BLOOD

PLASMA

17

INCREASES IN NUMBER DURING PROLONGED INFECTIONS

MONOCYTE

18

THE FIVE TYPES OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS

MEUTROPHIL, EOSINOPHIL, BASOPHIL, LYMPHOCYTE, MONOCYTE

19

LIST FOUR CLASSES OF NUTRIENTS NORMALLY FOUND IN PLASMA.

AMINO ACIDS, GLUCOSE, FATTY ACIDS AND VITAMINS

20

NAME TWO GASES NORMALLY FOUND IN PLASMA.

CARBON DIOXIDE AND OXYGEN

21

NAME THREE IONS NORMALLY FOUND IN PLASMA.

SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CALCIUM

22

DESCRIBE THE CONSISTENCY AND AND COLOR OF THE PLASMA YOU OBSERVED IN THE LABORATORY.

PLASMA IS A (SLIPPERY) GELATINOUS FLUID UNLIKE WATER; HAS A STRAW LIKE COLOR TO IT (YELLOW)

23

WHAT IS THE AVERAGE LIFE SPAN OF A RED BLOOD CELL? HOW DOES ITS ANUCLEATE CONDITION AFFECT THIS LIFE SPAN?

DURATION OF DEVELOPMENT ABOUT 15 DAYS; LIFE SPAN 100 - 120 DAYS. BECAUSE ITS ANUCLEATE THEY ARE UNABLE TO REPRODUCE OR REPAIR DAMAGE CAUSED TO IT DURING CIRCULATION.

24

FROM MEMORY, DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING BLOOD CELL TYPES AS ACCURATELY AS POSSIBLE, AND NOTE THE PERCENTAGE OF EACH IN THE TOTAL WHITE BLOOD CELL POPULATION.
(EOSINOPHIL)

(2% - 4%) BILOBE NUCLEUS, CONTAINS LARGE CYTOPLASMIC GRANULES (ELABORATE LYSOSOMES), STAINS RED-ORANGE.

25

FROM MEMORY, DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING BLOOD CELL TYPES AS ACCURATELY AS POSSIBLE, AND NOTE THE PERCENTAGE OF EACH IN THE TOTAL WHITE BLOOD CELL POPULATION
(NEUTROPHIL)

(50% - 70%) NUCLEUS CONSISTS OF 3 TO 6 LOBES AND PALE LILAC CYTOPLASM CONTAINS FINE CYTOPLASMIC GRANULES.

26

FROM MEMORY, DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING BLOOD CELL TYPES AS ACCURATELY AS POSSIBLE, AND NOTE THE PERCENTAGE OF EACH IN THE TOTAL WHITE BLOOD CELL POPULATION
(LYMPHOCYTES)

(25% OR MORE) NUCLEUS SPHERICAL OR SLIGHTLY INDENTED, ACCOUNTS FOR MOST OF CELLS MASS. CYTOPLASM APPEARS AS A THIN BLUE RIM AROUND NUCLEUS.

27

FROM MEMORY, DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING BLOOD CELL TYPES AS ACCURATELY AS POSSIBLE, AND NOTE THE PERCENTAGE OF EACH IN THE TOTAL WHITE BLOOD CELL POPULATION
(BASOPHIL)

(LESS THAN 1%) LARGE U OR S SHAPED NUCLEUS WITH 2 OR MORE INDENTATIONS. CYTOPLASM HAS COURSE, SPARSE GRANULES.

28

FROM MEMORY, DESCRIBE THE STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH OF THE FOLLOWING BLOOD CELL TYPES AS ACCURATELY AS POSSIBLE, AND NOTE THE PERCENTAGE OF EACH IN THE TOTAL WHITE BLOOD CELL POPULATION
(MONOCYTES)

(3% - 8%) KIDNEY SHAPED NUCLEUS, HAS ABUNDANT CYTOPLASM (STAINS GREY-BLUE)

29

ABNORMAL INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF WBCs

LEUKOCYTOSIS

30

ABNORMAL INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF RBCs

POLYCYTHEMIA

31

CONDITION OF TOO FEW RBCs OR OF RBCs WITH HEMOGLOBIN DEFICIENCIES

ANEMIA

32

ABNORMAL DECREASE IN THE NUMBER OF WBCs

LEUKOPENIA

33

BROADLY SPEAKING WHY ARE HEMATOLOGIC STUDIES OF BLOOD SO IMPORTANT IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF DISEASE?

THE HEMATOLOGIC IS IMPORTANT IN DIAGNOSING DISEASES BECAUSE BLOOD COMPOSITION REFLECTS THE HEALTH STATUS OF MANY BODY FUNCTIONS.

34

RECORD NORMAL VALUES FOR HEALTHY MALE ADULTS AND INDICATE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIGH OR LOW VALUES FOR EACH TEST.
TEST 1: TOTAL WBC COUNT

NORMAL VALUES:5,000 - 10,000/ UL OF BLOOD
HIGH VALUES: LEUKOCYTOSIS
LOW VALUES: LEUKOPENIA

35

RECORD NORMAL VALUES FOR HEALTHY MALE ADULTS AND INDICATE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIGH OR LOW VALUES FOR EACH TEST.
TEST 2: TOTAL RBC COUNT

NORMAL VALUES: 4.2 - 6.2 MILLION/ UL OF BLOOD
HIGH VALUES: ERYTHROCYTOSIS
LOW VALUES: ANEMIA

36

RECORD NORMAL VALUES FOR HEALTHY MALE ADULTS AND INDICATE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIGH OR LOW VALUES FOR EACH TEST.
TEST 3: HEMATOCRIT

NORMAL VALUES: 47 + / - 7
HIGH VALUES: ERYTHROCYTOSIS
LOW VALUES: ANEMIA

37

RECORD NORMAL VALUES FOR HEALTHY MALE ADULTS AND INDICATE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIGH OR LOW VALUES FOR EACH TEST.
TEST 4: HEMOGLOBIN DETERMINATION

NORMAL VALUES: 14 - 18G/100 ML OF BLOOD
HIGH VALUES: ERYTHROCYTOSIS
LOW VALUES: ANEMIA

38

RECORD NORMAL VALUES FOR HEALTHY MALE ADULTS AND INDICATE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIGH OR LOW VALUES FOR EACH TEST.
TEST 5: BLEEDING TIME

NORMAL VALUES: 2 - 7 MIN (I.V. METHOD)/ 3 - 5 MIN (DUKE METHOD)
HIGH VALUES: DIC - (CLOTTING DISORDER)
LOW VALUES: VONWILLEBRAND DISEASE - (CLOTTING DISORDER)

39

RECORD NORMAL VALUES FOR HEALTHY MALE ADULTS AND INDICATE THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HIGH OR LOW VALUES FOR EACH TEST.
TEST 6: COAGULATION TIME

NORMAL VALUES: 2 - 6 MINUTES
HIGH VALUES: CLOTTING DECREASED
LOW VALUES: CLOTTING INCREASED

40

WHY IS A DIFFERENTIAL WBC COUNT MORE VALUEABLE THAN A TOTAL WBC COUNT WHEN TRYING TO PIN DOWN THE SPECIFIC SOURCE OF PATHOLOGY?

A DIFFERENTIAL WBC COUNT IS MORE VALUEABLE BECAUSE ANY ABNORMAL COUNT (INCREASE/DECREASE) OF ANY OF THE WBC'S CAN INDICATE A PROBLEM OR THE SOURCE OF PATHOLOGY.
EX. INCREASED NEUTROPHIL COULD MEAN BACTERIAL INFECTION

41

WHAT NAME IS GIVEN TO THE PROCESS OF RBC PRODUCTION?

ERYTHROPOIESIS

42

WHAT HORMONE ACTS AS A STIMULUS FOR ERYTHROPOIESIS?

GLYCOPROTEIN (ERYTHROPOIETIN)

43

WHY MIGHT PATIENTS WITH KIDNEY DISEASE SUFFER FROM ANEMIA? HOW CAN SUCH PATIENTS BE TREATED?

BECAUSE ITS THE KIDNEYS THAT RELEASE ERYTHROPOITIN TO STIMULATE BONE MARROW TO MAKE MORE RBCs. IF THE KIDNEYS WERE NOT FUNCTIONING RIGHT RBCs WILL BE REDUCED CAUSING ANEMIA.
TREATMENT: EPO & IRON SUPPLEMENTS

44

DISCUSS THE EFFECT OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS ON RBC COUNT.

LONG-TERM EFFECT OF ATHLETIC TRAINING (FOR EXAMPLE, RUNNING 4 TO 5 MILES PER DAY OVER A PERIOD OF SIX TO NINE MONTHS)

A ENDURANCE TRAINING ENLARGES YOUR BLOOD VOLUME RESULTING IN A LOWER RBC PER UNIT. THIS IS KNOWN AS SPORTS ANEMIA.

45

DISCUSS THE EFFECT OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS ON RBC COUNT.

A PERMANENT MOVE FROM SEA LEVEL TO A HIGH ALTITUDE AREA

ANY PROLONGED PERIOD OF OXYGEN DEPRIVATION RESULTS IN INCREASED RED BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION. SINCE THERE IS LESS OXYGEN THE HIGHER YOU ARE ABOVE SEA LEVEL, YOUR RBC COUNT WOULD INCREASE.

46

DEFINE HEMATOCRIT

PACKED CELL VOLUME (PCV)% OCCUPIED BY ERYTHROCYTES.

47

IF YOU HAD A HIGH HEMATOCRIT, WOULD YOU EXPECT YOUR HEMOGLOBIN DETERMINATION TO BE HIGH OR LOW? WHY?

HIGH; THE MORE ERYTHROCYTES YOU HAVE MEANS YOU WILL HAVE MORE HEMOGLOBIN NEEDED FOR OXYGEN BONDING.

48

WHAT IS AN ANTICOAGULANT?

AGENT THAT PREVENTS COAGULATION

49

NAME TWO ANTICOAGULANTS USED IN CONDUCTING THE HEMATOLOGIC TESTS.

HEPARIN AND ETHYLENEDIAMINETRAACETIC ACID (EDTA); CAN ALSO USE SODIUM CITRATE.

50

WHAT IS THE BODYS NATURAL ANTICOAGULANT?

THERE IS MORE THEN ONE, BUT HEPARIN IS THE ONE MOST HEARD OF. OTHER 2 ARE ANTI THROMBIN AND PROSTACYCLIN.

51

IF YOUR BLOOD CLUMPED WITH BOTH ANTI-A AND ANTI-B SERA, YOUR ABO BLOOD TYPE WOULD BE?

AB BLOOD TYPE

52

IF YOU WERE AB BLOOD TYPE:
TO WHAT ABO BLOOD GROUPS COULD YOU GIVE BLOOD?

AB BLOOD TYPE

53

IF YOU WERE AB BLOOD TYPE:
FROM WHICH ABO DONOR TYPES COULD YOU RECEIVE BLOOD?

ALL DONOR TYPES

54

WHICH ABO BLOOD TYPE IS MOST COMMON?

O BLOOD TYPE

55

WHICH ABO BLOOD TYPE IS THE LEAST COMMON?

AB BLOOD TYPE

56

WHAT BLOOD TYPE IS THEORETICALLY CONSIDERED THE UNIVERSAL DONOR? WHY?

TYPE O BLOOD; BECAUSE THEY CAN USUALLY GIVE BLOOD TO THE OTHER ABO BLOOD TYPES WITHOUT CAUSING AN ABO TRANSFUSION REACTION.

57
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ASSUME THE BLOOD OF TWO PATIENTS HAS BEEN TYPED FOR ABO BLOOD TYPE. ON THE BASIS OF THESE RESULTS, MR. ADAMS HAS TYPE _1_ BLOOD, AND MR. CALHOON HAS TYPE _2_ BLOOD.

1. O
2. A

58

EXPLAIN WHY AN RH-NEGATIVE PERSON DOES NOT HAVE A TRANSFUSION REACTION ON THE FIRST EXPOSURE TO RH-POSITIVE BLOOD BUT DOES HAVE A REACTION ON THE SECOND EXPOSURE.

RH ANTIGENS OF DONOR SENSITIZES THE RECIPIENT ON THE FIRST TIME, THE SECOND TIME IT DOES NOT SENSITIZE AND A REACTION WILL OCCUR.

59

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN AN ABO BLOOD TYPE IS MISMATCHED FOR THE FIRST TIME?

ANTIBODIES BIND TOGETHER CAUSING BLOOD TO CLUMP UP, AND THE BLOOD WILL NOT WORK PROPERLY.

60

RECORD YOUR OBSERVATIONS OF THE FIVE DEMONSTRATION SLIDES VIEWED.

A. MACROCYTIC HYPOCHROMIC ANEMIA

THE RED BLOOD CELL WOULD APPEAR LARGER THEN NORMAL (E.G. FROM VITAMIN B-12 DEFICIENCY) AND PALER THAN NORMAL (NOT AS RED APPEARING)

61

RECORD YOUR OBSERVATIONS OF THE FIVE DEMONSTRATION SLIDES VIEWED.

B. MICROCYTIC HYPOCHROMIC ANEMIA

VERY MUCH SMALLER THAN THE AVERAGE RED BLOOD CELL AND PINK IN COLOR DUE TO LOW HEMOGLOBIN IN THE BODY

62

RECORD YOUR OBSERVATIONS OF THE FIVE DEMONSTRATION SLIDES VIEWED.

C. SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

SICKLE CELL LOOK LIKE DEFORMED RED BLOOD CELLS WHEN DIAGNOSED WITH SICKLE CELL, THEY LOOK THEIR SHAPE AND FORM INTO A C-SHAPED CELL

63

RECORD YOUR OBSERVATIONS OF THE FIVE DEMONSTRATION SLIDES VIEWED.

D. LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA (CHRONIC)

CELLS ARE ALOT LARGER, HAVE A MEMBRANE THAT IS VERY LARGE AND MISSHAPED

64

RECORD YOUR OBSERVATIONS OF THE FIVE DEMONSTRATION SLIDES VIEWED.

E. EOSINOPHILIA

LARGER THEN A RBC, ROUND, MEMBRANE IS BI-LOBED

65

IRON-DEFICIENT DIET

MICROCYTIC HYPOCHROMIC ANEMIA

66

A TYPE OF BONE MARROW CANCER

LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA (CHRONIC)

67

A TAPEWORM INFESTATION IN THE BODY

EOSINOPHILIA

68

GENETIC DEFECT THAT CAUSES HEMOGLOBIN TO BECOME SHARP/SPIKY

SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

69

A BLEEDING ULCER

SICKLE CELL ANEMIA

70

PROVIDE THE NORMAL, OR AT LEAST "DESIREABLE," RANGE FOR PLASMA CHOLESTEROL CONCENTRATION

130 - 200 MG/100 ML

71

DESCRIBE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIGH BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SUCH AS HYPERTENSION, HEART ATTACKS, AND STROKES.

CHOLESTEROL IS A MAJOR COMPONENT OF SMOOTH MUSCLE PLAQUES FORMED DURING ATHEROSCLEROSIS. ATHEROCLEROSIS IS A DISEASE PROCESS IN WHICH THE BODY'S BLOOD VESSELS BECOME INCREASINGLY OCCLUDED BY PLAQUES. PLAQUES NARROW ARTERIES, AND CONTRIBUTE TO HYPERTENSION. THEY ALSO HELP IN THE FORMATION OF BLOOD CLOTS THAT BREAK AWAY AND BLOCK SMALLER VESSELS IN CULATORY PATHWAY AND CAUSES HEART ATTACKS OR STROKES