Chapter 14 & 15

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Mastering Biology
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1

What name is given to the process in which a strand of DNA is used as a template for the manufacture of a strand of pre-mRNA?

transcription

2

What name is given to the process in which the information encoded in a strand of mRNA is used to construct a protein?

translation

3

What name is given to the process in which pre-mRNA is edited into mRNA?

RNA processing

4

Polypeptides are assembled from _____.

amino acids

5

RNA processing converts the RNA transcript into _____.

mRNA

6

True or false? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than one amino acid.

False

7

Which of the following statements about mutations is false?

A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated protein.

8

If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA, what kind of mutation has occurred?

Deletion

9

Which mutation(s) would not change the remainder of the reading frame of a gene sequence that follows the mutation(s)?

One addition and one deletion mutation.

10

If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after the first G and the third T were deleted, how many amino acids would be changed in the mutant protein?

Two

11

If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from the normal protein, which of the following kinds of mutations could have occurred?

An addition mutation and a deletion mutation.

12
card image

In the diagram below, the gray unit represents _____.

RNA polymerase

13

In the diagram below, the green unit represents _____.

the promoter

14

In the diagram below, the two blue strands represent _____.

DNA

15

Which of these correctly illustrates the pairing of DNA and RNA nucleotides?

GTTACG

CAAUGC

16

The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.

5' —> 3'

17

What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy?

Transcription

18

DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?

Organelles

19

Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?

A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase

20

Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene?

The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene.

21

What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription?

Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides

22

Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand?

Complementary

23

What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene?

It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription.

24
card image

Which of the following terms associated with transcription describe regions of nucleic acid?

  • terminator
  • gene
  • promoter
25

During transcription in eukaryotes, a type of RNA polymerase called RNA polymerase II moves along the template strand of the DNA in the 3'→5' direction. However, for any given gene, either strand of the double-stranded DNA may function as the template strand.

For any given gene, what ultimately determines which DNA strand serves as the template strand?

the base sequence of the gene's promoter

26

After transcription begins, several steps must be completed before the fully processed mRNA is ready to be used as a template for protein synthesis on the ribosomes.

Which three statements correctly describe the processing that takes place before a mature mRNA exits the nucleus?

  • A cap consisting of a modified guanine nucleotide is added to the 5' end of the pre-mRNA.
  • A poly-A tail (50-250 adenine nucleotides) is added to the 3' end of the pre-mRNA.
  • Noncoding sequences called introns are spliced out by molecular complexes called spliceosomes.
27

During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.

modified guanine nucleotide

28

During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.

a long string of adenine nucleotides

29

Spliceosomes are composed of _____.

snRNPs and other proteins

30

The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____.

exons

31

Translation occurs in the _____.

cytoplasm

32

Where does translation take place?

Ribosome

33

Which nucleic acid is translated to make a protein?

mRNA

34

Which of the following processes is an example of a post-translational modification?

Phosphorylation

35

Which of the following steps occurs last in the initiation phase of translation?

The large ribosomal subunit joins the complex.

36

At which site do new aminoacyl tRNAs enter the ribosome during elongation?

A-site

37

What is meant by translocation?

The ribosome slides one codon down the mRNA.

38

True or false. A tRNA with an anticodon complementary to the stop codon catalyzes the reaction by which translation is terminated.

False

39
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Which of these is a tRNA?

B

40

What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA?

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

41

The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence _____.

CUG

42
card image

What is the name of the process shown in the diagram?

initiation (of translation)

43

The initiator tRNA attaches at the ribosome's _____ site.

P

44

The RNA that has an amino acid attached to it, and that binds to the codon on the mRNA, is called a ____

tRNA

45

Amino acids are attached to tRNA by enzymes called ________

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

46

The process, performed by the ribosome, of reading mRNA and synthesizing a protein is called _____

translation.

47

_____ of translation always happens at the start codon of the mRNA.

Initiation

48

______ of translation happens when the ribosome hits a stop codon on the mRNA.

Termination

49

Generally speaking, which of the following mutations would most severely affect the protein coded for by a gene?

a frameshift deletion at the beginning of the gene

50

Which of the following statements best defines the term operon?

An operon is a region of DNA that codes for a series of functionally related genes under the control of the same promoter.

51

What molecule binds to promoters in bacteria and transcribes the coding regions of the genes?

RNA polymerase

52

What is allosteric regulation?

In allosteric regulation, a small molecule binds to a large protein and causes it to change its shape and activity.

53

Under which conditions are the lac structural genes expressed most efficiently?

No glucose, high lactose

54

What happens to the expression of the lacI gene if lactose is not available in the cell?

There is no change—the lacI gene is constitutively expressed.

55

What is the function of the lacZ gene?

This gene encodes an enzyme, b-galactosidase, which cleaves lactose into glucose and galactose.

56

Which of the following enzymes converts ATP to cAMP?

Adenylyl cyclase

57

True or false? The mechanism by which glucose inhibits expression of the lac structural genes is known as catabolite stimulation, whereas the mechanism by which lactose stimulates expression of the lac structural genes is known as allosteric regulation.

False

58

The operon model of the regulation of gene expression in bacteria was proposed by _____.

Jacob and Monod

59

Which of these is NOT a component of the lac operon?

regulatory gene only

60

Regulatory proteins bind to _____.

the operator

61

In the presence of a regulatory protein the lac operon is _____.

not transcribed

62
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Which of these is a regulatory gene?

D

63

A(n) ____ is a stretch of DNA consisting of an operator, a promoter, and genes for a related set of proteins, usually making up an entire metabolic pathway.

operon

64

The ________ is/are arranged sequentially after the promoter.

genes of an operon

65

A(n) ______ is a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that binds RNA polymerase, positioning it to start transcribing RNA at the appropriate place.

promoter

66

A(n) _____ codes for a protein, such as a repressor, that controls the transcription of another gene or group of genes.

regulatory gene

67

Regulatory proteins bind to the _____ to control expression of the operon.

operator

68

A(n) _____ is a protein that inhibits gene transcription. In prokaryotes, this protein binds to the DNA in or near the promoter.

repressor

69

A(n) _______ is a specific small molecule that binds to a bacterial regulatory protein and changes its shape so that it cannot bind to an operator, thus switching an operon on.

inducer

70

_____ bind(s) to DNA enhancer regions.

Activators

71
card image

Which of these indicates an enhancer region?

A

72

Which of these directly bind(s) to the promoter?

C & D

73

Enzyme complexes that break down protein are called _____.

proteasomes

74

The nuclear membrane's role in the regulation of gene expression involves _____.

regulating the transport of mRNA to the cytoplasm

75

What is the function of a spliceosome?

RNA processing

76

Protein-phosphorylating enzymes' role in the regulation of gene expression involves _____.

protein activation

77

Which of the following terms describes the DNA–protein complexes that look like beads on a string?

Nucleosome

78

Which of the following regulatory elements is not composed of DNA sequences?

Activators

79

True or false? Regulatory and basal transcription factors regulate transcription by binding to the promoter.

False

80

Which of the following regulatory DNA sequences might be located thousands of nucleotides away from the transcription start site of a gene?

Enhancer

81

Which of the following events in transcription initiation likely occurs last?

RNA polymerase binds to the promoter of the gene.

82

True or false? One possible way to alter chromatin structure such that genes could be transcribed would be to make histone proteins more positively charged.

False