A&P 2 Final part 1

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1

What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

A) help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

B) help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys

C) help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys

D) help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys

A) help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

2

Urine passes through the ________.
A) renal hilum to the bladder to the ureter
B) pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra
C) glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule
D) hilum to urethra to bladder

B) pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

3

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?
A) a podocyte
B) a vasa recta
C) a fenestrated capillary
D) an efferent arteriole

B) a vasa recta

4

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.

A) decrease in the production of ADH

B) increase in the production of ADH

C) increase in the production of aldosterone

D) decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma

B) increase in the production of ADH

5

Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.

A) An increase in cardiac output corresponds to a decrease in blood pressure, due to the increased delivery.

B) Systemic vasodilation would increase blood pressure, due to diversion of blood to essential areas.

C) Excess protein production would decrease blood pressure.

D) Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.

D) Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase

6

The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.

A) when the peritubular capillaries are dilated

B) when the pH of the urine decreases

C) by a decrease in the blood pressure

D) when the specific gravity of urine rises above 1.10

C) by a decrease in the blood pressure

7

Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?
A) helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of blood
B) regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones
C) maintains blood osmolarity
D) eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

D) eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

8

The descending limb of the loop of Henle ________.

A) is not permeable to water

B) is freely permeable to sodium and urea

C) pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule

D) contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

D) contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

9

The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
A) lobar
B) arcuate
C) interlobar
D) cortical radiate

B) arcuate

10

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.
A) has a basement membrane
B) is impermeable to most substances
C) is drained by an efferent arteriole
D) has a blood pressure much lower than other organ systems

C) is drained by an efferent arteriole

11

The descending limb of the loop of Henle ________.

A) is not permeable to water
B) is freely permeable to sodium and urea
C) pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule
D) contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

D) contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

12

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.

A) ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently
B) stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
C) is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys
D) produces vitamin D

B) stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

13

Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.

A) An increase in cardiac output corresponds to a decrease in blood pressure, due to the increased delivery.

B) Systemic vasodilation would increase blood pressure, due to diversion of blood to essential areas.

C) Excess protein production would decrease blood pressure.

D) Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.

D) Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase

14

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
A) nephron
B) loop of Henle
C) glomerular capsule
D) basement membrane of the capillaries

A) nephron

15

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________.

A) the secretion of drugs
B) the secretion of acids and ammonia
C) reabsorption of organic molecules, vitamins, and water
D) regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

D) regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

16

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.

A) the design and size of the podocytes
B) the thickness of the capillary endothelium
C) glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
D) the size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries

C) glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

17

Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?

A) the stretching of the bladder wall
B) motor neurons
C) the pressure of the fluid in the bladder
D) the sympathetic efferents

A) the stretching of the bladder wall

18

The filtration membrane includes all except ________.

A) glomerular endothelium
B) podocytes
C) renal fascia
D) basement membrane

C) renal fascia

19

Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.

A) not Tm limited
B) in the distal convoluted tubule
C) hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments
D) completed by the time the loop of Henle is reached

C) hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

20

The macula densa cells respond to ________.
A) aldosterone
B) antidiuretic hormone
C) changes in pressure in the tubule
D) changes in solute content of the filtrate

D) changes in solute content of the filtrate

21

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
A) Na+
B) K+
C) glucose
D) creatinine

D) creatinine

22

The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.
A) glucose
B) hormones
C) electrolytes
D) plasma protein

D) plasma protein

23

The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
A) constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
B) decrease the production of aldosterone
C) decrease arterial blood pressure
D) decrease water absorption

A) constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

24

Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.

1. major calyx
2. minor calyx
3. nephron
4. urethra
5. ureter
6. collecting duct

A) 3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4
B) 6, 3, 2, 1, 5, 4
C) 2, 1, 3, 6, 5, 4
D) 3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4

D) 3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4

25

What would happen if the capsular hydrostatic pressure were increased above normal?

A) Net filtration would increase above normal.
B) Net filtration would decrease.
C) Filtration would increase in proportion to the increase in capsular pressure.
D) Capsular osmotic pressure would compensate so that filtration would not change.

B) Net filtration would decrease.

26

Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
A) granular cells
B) macula densa
C) podocyte cells
D) mesangial cells

C) podocyte cells

27

Which of the choices below is a function of the loop of Henle?
A) form a large volume of very concentrated urine or a small volume of very dilute urine
B) form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
C) absorb electrolytes actively with an automatic absorption of water by osmosis
D) none of these

B) form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine

28

The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.
A) colloid osmotic pressure of the blood
B) glomerular hydrostatic pressure
C) capsular hydrostatic pressure
D) myogenic mechanism

B) glomerular hydrostatic pressure

29

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
A) The glucose molecule is too large to be filtered out of the blood.
B) Most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reabsorbed in the convoluted tubules.
C) Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
D) The clearance value of glucose is relatively high in a healthy adult.

C) Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.

30

Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.
A) relative permeability of the distal tubule to water
B) impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
C) transport of sodium and chloride ions out of the descending loop of Henle
D) the presence of ADH

B) impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

31

In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle the ________.

A) thin segment is freely permeable to water

B) thick segment is permeable to water

C) thin segment is not permeable to sodium and chloride

D) thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

D) thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

32

Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?
A) disposing of substances not already in the filtrate, such as certain drugs
B) eliminating undesirable substances such as urea and uric acid that have been reabsorbed by passive processes
C) ridding the body of bicarbonate ions
D) ridding the body of excessive potassium ions

C) ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

33

Which statement is correct?
A) Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.
B) Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein.
C) Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine.
D) The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood.

A) Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.

34

What is the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
A) help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys
B) help regulate blood pressure and the rate of excretion by the kidneys
C) help regulate urea absorption by the kidneys
D) help regulate water and electrolyte excretion by the kidneys

A) help regulate blood pressure and the rate of blood filtration by the kidneys

35

Which of the choices below is the salt level-monitoring part of the nephron?
A) macula densa
B) principal cell
C) vasa recta
D) loop of Henle

A) macula densa

36

Which of the hormones below is responsible for facultative water reabsorption?
A) ADH
B) thyroxine
C) aldosterone
D) atrial natriuretic peptide

A) ADH

37

Which of the choices below is not a glomerular filtration rate control method?
A) renal autoregulation
B) neural regulation
C) electrolyte levels
D) hormonal regulation

C) electrolyte levels

38

Which cells of the kidney are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in solute content of the filtrate?
A) juxtaglomerular cells
B) mesangial cells
C) macula densa cells
D) podocytes

C) macula densa cells

39

What is the average normal pH of blood?

A) 8.4
B) 7.8
C) 7.4
D) 4.7

C) 7.4

40

Which blood type is called the universal donor?

A) A
B) B
C) AB
D) O

D) O

41

Which of the following is a regulatory function of blood?

A) delivery of oxygen to body cells
B) transport of metabolic wastes from cells
C) prevention of blood loss
D) maintenance of normal pH in body tissues

D) maintenance of normal pH in body tissues

42

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

A) prevention of blood loss
B) maintenance of adequate fluid volume
C) maintenance of normal pH in body tissue
D) maintenance of body temperature

D) maintenance of body temperature

43

Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?

A) hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
B) decreased tissue demand for oxygen
C) an increased number of RBCs
D) moving to a lower altitude

A) hypoxia of EPO-producing cells

44

As red blood cells age ________.

A) ATP production increases
B) membranes ʺwear outʺ and the cells become damaged
C) they will eventually be excreted by the digestive system
D) iron will be excreted by the kidneys

B) membranes ʺwear outʺ and the cells become damaged

45

The most abundant plasma protein is ________.

A) globulin
B) clotting protein
C) albumin
D) bile

C) albumin

46

When neither anti-A nor anti-B clots on a blood plate, the blood is type ________.

A) A
B) B
C) AB
D) O

D) O

47

Which of these is not a normal plasma protein?

A) fibrinogen
B) gamma globulin
C) thromboplastin
D) albumin

C) thromboplastin

48

No visible cytoplasmic granules are present in ________.

A) monocytes
B) basophils
C) eosinophils
D) neutrophils

A) monocytes

49

Place the following in correct developmental sequence:

1. reticulocyte
2. proerythroblast
3. normoblast
4. late erythroblast

A) 1, 2, 3, 4
B) 1, 3, 2, 4
C) 2, 1, 3, 4
D) 2, 4, 3, 1

D) 2, 4, 3, 1

50

Which of the following is not a cause of bleeding disorders?

A) thrombocytopenia, a condition of decreased circulating platelets
B) excess secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)
C) a defect in the clotting cascade
D) vitamin K deficiency

B) excess secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)

51

Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?

A) They are nucleated.
B) They have cytoplasmic granules.
C) They are phagocytic.
D) They are the most numerous of the formed elements in blood

A) They are nucleated.

52

Which of the following is true about blood plasma?

A) It is the same as serum but without the clotting proteins.
B) The main protein component is hemoglobin.
C) It is about 90% water.
D) It contains about 20 dissolved components.

C) It is about 90% water.

53

Platelets ________.

A) stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break
B) have a life span of about 120 days
C) are the precursors of leukocytes
D) have multiple nuclei

A) stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

54

All of the following conditions impair coagulation except ________.

A) vascular spasm
B) vitamin K deficiency
C) severe hypocalcemia
D) liver disease

A) vascular spasm

55

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

A) Kidney
B) Brain
C) Liver
D) Pancreas

A) Kidney

56

which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?

A) pluripotent stem cell (hemocytoblast)
B) polymorphonuclear cell
C) NK cell
D) megakaryocyte

A) pluripotent stem cell (hemocytoblast)

57

Which of the following is not a phase of hemostasis?

A) fibrinolysis
B) coagulation
C) platelet plug formation
D) cascular spasm

A) fibrinolysis

58

What is the average normal pH range for blood?

A) 7.35 - 7.45
B) 8.35 - 8.45
C) 4.65 - 4.75
D) 7.75 - 7.85

A) 7.35 - 7.45

59

Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?

A) capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood
B) Blood flow to the kidneys increases
C) the skin will be cold and clammy
D) blood will be diverted to the digestive organs

A) capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood

60

Which of the following is true about veins?
A) Venous valves are formed from the tunica media.
B) Up to 35% of total body blood is in venous circulation at any given time.
C) Veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of the vessel wall.
D) Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.

D) Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.

61

Peripheral resistance ________.
A) decreases with increasing length of the blood vessel
B) increases as blood vessel diameter increases
C) increases as blood viscosity increases
D) is not a major factor in blood pressure in healthy individuals

C) increases as blood viscosity increases

62

Blood flow to the skin ________.

A) is controlled mainly by decreasing pH
B) increases when environmental temperature rises
C) increases when body temperature drops so that the skin does not freeze
D) is not an important source of nutrients and oxygen for skin cells

B) increases when environmental temperature rises

63

Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?
A) tunica intima
B) tunica media
C) tunica externa
D) basement membrane

A) tunica intima

64

Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?
A) tunica intima
B) tunica media
C) tunica externa
D) basement membrane

B) tunica media

65

The hepatic portal vein ________.
A) is actually an artery
B) carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver
C) carries oxygen-rich blood from the liver to the viscera
D) carries blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava

B) carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver

66

Which statement is correct?

A) Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.
B) Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein.
C) Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine.
D) The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of the blood.

A) Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.

67

The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.
A) muscular arteries
B) elastic arteries
C) arterioles
D) venules

C) arterioles

68

Factors that aid venous return include all except ________.
A) activity of skeletal muscles
B) pressure changes in the thorax
C) venous valves
D) urinary output

D) urinary output

69

Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.

A) An increase in cardiac output corresponds to a decrease in blood pressure, due to the increased delivery.

B) Systemic vasodilation would increase blood pressure, due to diversion of blood to essential areas.

C) Excess protein production would decrease blood pressure.

D) Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.

D) Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase

70

Which of the choices below does not describe the importance of tubular secretion?

A) disposing of substances not already in the filtrate, such as certain drugs

B) eliminating undesirable substances such as urea and uric acid that have been reabsorbed by passive processes

C) ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

D) ridding the body of excessive potassium ions

C) ridding the body of bicarbonate ions

71

All of the following conditions impair coagulation except ________.

A) vascular spasm
B) vitamin K deficiency
C) severe hypocalcemia
D) liver disease

A) vascular spasm

72

Which statement best describes arteries?
A) All carry oxygenated blood to the heart.
B) All carry blood away from the heart.
C) All contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood.
D) Only large arteries are lined with endothelium.

B) All carry blood away from the heart.

73

Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.
A) arterioles
B) arteries
C) veins
D) capillaries

D) capillaries

74

The arteries that are also called muscular arteries are the ________.
A) capillaries
B) distributing arteries
C) elastic arteries
D) arterioles

B) distributing arteries

75

Aldosterone will _______.
A) promote a decrease in blood volume
B) decrease sodium reabsorption
C) promote an increase in blood pressure
D) result in a larger output of urine

C) promote an increase in blood pressure

76

The pulse pressure is ________.
A) systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure
B) systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure
C) systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure
D) diastolic pressure plus 1/3 (systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure)

B) systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure

77

Select the correct statement about cardiac output.

A) A slow heart rate increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction.

B) Decreased venous return will result in increased end diastolic volume.

C) If a semilunar valve were partially obstructed, the end systolic volume in the affected ventricle would be decreased.

D) Stroke volume increases if end diastolic volume decreases.

A) A slow heart rate increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, and force of contraction.

78

Isovolumetric contraction ________.

A) refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers
B) occurs while the AV valves are open
C) occurs immediately after the aortic and pulmonary valves close
D) occurs only in people with heart valve defects

A) refers to the short period during ventricular systole when the ventricles are completely closed chambers

79

Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?

A) excitation of the SA node
B) closure of the heart valves
C) friction of blood against the chamber walls
D) opening and closing of the heart valves

B) closure of the heart valves

80

When viewing a dissected heart, it is easy to visually discern the right and left ventricles by ________.

A) tracing out where the auricles connect
B) noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls
C) locating the apex
D) finding the papillary muscles

B) noticing the thickness of the ventricle walls

81

Which vessel of the heart receives blood during right ventricular systole?

A) venae cavae
B) pulmonary trunk
C) aorta
D) pulmonary veins

B) pulmonary trunk

82

Which of the following is not part of the conduction system of the heart?

A) AV node
B) bundle of His
C) AV valve
D) SA node

C) AV valve