A&P Lecture Exam 3

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1

Sensory receptors that are located in blood vessels and visceral organs and whose signals are not usually consciously perceived are the

Interoceptors

2
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What type of neurotransmitter is used by the pathway shown in the figure?

Acetylcholine

3

Which of the following is a type of slowly adapting touch receptor?

Type 1 cutaneous mechanoreceptor (Merkel disc)

4

What layer of the skin contains the cold thermoreceptors?

Stratum basale

5

Which of the following are proprioceptors found in the articular capsules of synovial joints?

Kinesthetic receptors

6

Which of the following types of neurons conduct impulses from the thalamus to the primary somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex?

Third order neuron

7
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Which of the labeled structures in the diagram is a pain receptor?

A

8
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Which of the labeled structures in the diagram represents a type II cutaneous mechanoreceptor that monitors the stretching of skin?

D

9
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Which labeled neuron conducts impulses from the thalamus to the primary somatosensory area of the cerebral cortex?

C

10
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Which of the labeled structures in the diagram of the trigeminothalamic pathway is the trigeminal ganglion?

B

11
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Which of the labeled structures in the diagram of the trigeminothalamic pathway is a second-order neuron?

E

12

Which of the following is a direct motor pathway?

All of these choices

13

Which of the following is an example of a specialized sensory receptor cell that is known as a “separate cell”?

photoreceptor cell in retina

14
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Visceral pain coming from the stomach is referred to which location(s) in the diagram?

G

15
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Visceral pain coming from the ovaries is referred to which location(s) in the diagram?

F

16
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Visceral pain coming from the kidney is referred to which location(s) in the diagram?

D

17

Which disorder is characterized by a person’s breathing repeatedly stopping for 10 or more seconds while sleeping?

sleep apnea

18

The integration centers for sensations that are consciously perceived (like vision, smell, taste, and pain) are found in the

cerebral cortex.

19

Which of the following stages of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is considered the deepest level of sleep?

Stage four

20

Which of the following types of cells display the property of electrical excitability?

All of these choices

21

This type of neuron has one dendrite and one axon emerging from the cell body.

Bipolar neuron

22

A depolarizing graded potential

makes the membrane less polarized.

23

Saltatory conduction

occurs only in myelinated axons

24

An excitatory neurotransmitter _____ the postsynaptic membrane.

depolarizes

25

A postsynaptic neuron responds to neurotransmitters released by a presynaptic neuron by creating

Either EPSPs or IPSPs

26
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In the diagram, where are axon terminals?

H

27
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Which of these types of channels is involved in leaking sodium and potassium ions across the membrane in order to establish the resting potential of a cell?

A

28

Which of the following types of neurons is the most common type of neuron found in the brain and spinal cord?

multipolar neuron

29
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Which of the labeled cells in the figure is NOT a neuroglial cell?

C

30

Name the type of membrane channel that opens in response to touch, pressure, vibration, or tissue stretching and is found in the auditory receptors of the ear, and in touch and pressure receptors in the skin.

mechanically gated channels

31

Wallerian degeneration refers to

degeneration of the distal end of axon and myelin sheath after neural injury.

32

In the process of spatial summation, _____ are added together and _____ are subtracted from that total to determine whether _____ will be created at the trigger zone of the postsynaptic neuron.

EPSPs; IPSPs; action potentials

33

Denticulate ligaments are thickenings of

pia mater.

34

Which layer of protective connective tissue is the outermost covering surrounding a spinal nerve?

epineurium

35

A man presents with median nerve palsy in his left hand. What is the most likely site of injury?

Median nerve

36

Which type of descending motor pathway originates in the brainstem and governs automatic movements that help regulate muscle tone, posture and balance?

Indirect pathway

37
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Where is the subarachnoid space?

E

38
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Where is the pia mater?

G

39
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Which of the labeled structures carries exclusively motor information away from the spinal cord?

C

40
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Where is the epidural space?

F

41
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Where is the lateral white column?

D

42
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Which of the following structures is labeled B in the diagram?

Cervical enlargement

43
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The structure labeled A in the diagram belongs to which group of spinal nerves?

cervical nerves

44
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Which of the following nerves is labeled A in the diagram?

phrenic nerve

45
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Which of the following nerves is labeled B in the diagram?

axillary nerve

46

A severed obturator nerve will lead into paralysis of which region of the body?

Thigh

47

The cell bodies of the sensory neurons that carry information from the periphery to the spinal cord are located in the

posterior root ganglion.

48

The brain and spinal cord develop from the _____ neural tube.

ectodermal

49

Which of the following is a narrow fluid-filled cavity found along the midline superior to the hypothalamus and between the right and left halves of the thalamus?

Third ventricle

50

Pyramids are

white matter protrusions found on the medulla oblongata.

51

Which of the following is a nucleus found in the medulla oblongata that receives sensory information associated with touch, pressure and vibration?

Gracile nucleus

52

Which region of the brain serves as the major relay station for most sensory impulses that reach the primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex from the spinal cord and brain stem?

Thalamus

53

During brain development, the gyri of the cerebrum are formed because

the gray matter grows faster than the underlying white matter.

54

Which of the following cranial nerves control movements of the eyeball?

oculomotor (III) nerve, trochlear (IV) nerve, and abducens (VI) nerve

55

Which of the following cranial nerves is primarily responsible for changing facial expressions?

Facial

56
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Which cranial nerve in the diagram is primarily involved in the sense of vision?

B

57
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Which cranial nerve in the diagram has a somatic motor function primarily involved in chewing?

E

58

An electroencephalogram (EEG) measures brain waves primarily generated by

neurons in the cerebral cortex.

59

A deep indentation found along the medial plane that separates the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called the

longitudinal fissure.

60

Which three areas of gray matter found in each cerebral hemisphere are important in helping to control the initiation and termination of skeletal muscle movements?

basal nuclei

61

The main function of muscle spindles is

to sense changes in muscle length.

62

What category of receptor cell is used to sense touch, vibration and pressure?

mechanoreceptor

63

Adaptation of the olfactory sense to the continued presentation of an odorant

occurs rapidly.

64

Taste buds are found on

all of these choices.

65

Which is NOT considered an accessory structure of the eye?

Retina

66

Which is the correct order in the flow of tears?

Lacrimal gland, lacrimal duct, superior or inferior lacrimal canal, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, nasal cavity

67
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Which of the labeled papilla houses 100–300 taste buds each?

A

68
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Identify the choroid.

E

69
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Identify the ciliary body.

H

70
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Identify the ganglion cell layer.

D

71
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Which labeled step(s) represents regeneration of active photopigment?

4

72
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Identify the structure that is a thin semi-transparent partition between the external auditory canal and the middle ear?

K

73
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Which part of the diagram contains the olfactory bulb neurons?

A

74

From which of the following layers of the developing embryo do the eyes initially develop?

ectoderm

75

Presbycusis refers to age-associated

progressive loss of hearing in both ears.

76

Which sensory structure in the inner ear is capable of sensing rapid rotation of your head to the left?

crista of a semicircular duct

77
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Study the picture below. Which NERVE potential travels the longer distance in a typical sensation?

nerve action potential

78
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Carefully study the diagram below.. Which statement best describes the direction of signal transmission?

signals go only from the presynaptic neuron to postsynaptic neuron

79

Which is NOT a sensory function of the nervous system?

to cause a muscle to contract

80

Which neural circuit enables a single presynaptic stimulation to cause a postsynaptic cell to send a series of impulses?

reverberating circuit

81

The Nissl bodies function in

Protein production

82

Which cells are ciliated and function to move CSF?

ependymal cells

83

Resting membrane potential for the pyramidal neuron in this experiment was approximately (approximate because values vary every time the experiment is performed)

-65 mV

84

In this experiment, what was the approximate membrane potential when the action potential was generated?

+31 mV

85

Which type of depression results in an individual with a manic-depressive illness.

bipolar disorder.