Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System

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Microbiology
Chapter 22
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1

all of the following are true regarding African trypanosomiasis except

all subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei have multiple hosts

2

bacterial encephalitis and meningitis are difficult to treat because

many antibiotics cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier

3

all of the following organisms cause meningitis except

Mycobacterium leprae

4

which of the following statements about neisseria meningitis is false

it is a gram positive anaerobe

5

which of the following pairs is mismatched

cryptococcus neoformans - acid fast rod

6

all of the following organisms are correctly matched to the recommended treatment except

poliovirus - amphotericin B

7

which of the following statements about leprosy is false

patients with leprosy must be isolated

8

all of the following organisms are transmitted via the respiratory route except

listeria monocytogenes

9

the symptoms of tetanus are due to

tetanospasmin

10

a 30 year old woman was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Any of the following organisms could be responsible for her symptoms except

clostridium botulinum

11

The most effective control of mosquito-borne disease is

elimination of the mosquito population

12

Initial treatment of tetanus is an unimmunized person with a puncture wound is

tetanus immune globulin

13

Initial treatment for tetanus in a fully immunized person with a puncture wound is

tetanus toxoid

14

the most common route of central nervous system invasion of pathogens is through

the circulatory system

15

the prodromal (pre-acute disease stage) symptoms of bacterial meningitis is/are

mild cold symptoms

16

a pathologist detects Negri bodies while examining a brain section taken at autopsy. what was the cause of death

rabies

17

encephalitis is more common in the summer months because

mosquito populations increase

18

a 30 year old woman was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alerted and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Which of the following is most likely to provide rapid identification of the cause of her symptoms

gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid

19

Each of the following is caused by prions except

rabies

20

Arboviruses cause____ and are transmitted by ____

encephalitis; mosquito

21

Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis is commonly acquired by

swimming in warm ponds or streams

22

which of the following is treated with antibiotics

streptococcal pneumonia

23

which of the following is/are a free-living amoeba that can cause encephalitis

naegleria and acanthamoeba

24

microscopic examination of cerebrospinal fluid reveals gram positive rods. What is the organism

listeria

25

On June 30, a 47 year old man was hospitalized with dizziness, blurred vision, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, and nausea. Examination revealed facial paralysis. He reported eating home-caned green beans and stew containing roast beef and potatoes 24 hours before onset of symptoms. The patient should be treated with

supportive care, including respiratory assistance

26

vaccination is available for all of the following except

botulism

27

a one year old boy was listless, irritable, and sleepy. Capsulated gram negative rods were cultured from his cerebrospinal fluid. His symptoms were caused by

haemophilus influenzae

28

which of the following pairs is mismatched

botulism - stimulates transmission of nerve impulses

29

all of the following microorganisms can directly cause meningitis except

mosquitoes

30

which of the following vaccines can cause the disease it is designed to prevent

oral polio vaccine

31

all of the following are true of poliomyelitis except

most cases result in muscle paralysis

32

CSF contains high levels of complement and circulating antibodies to prevent infection of the brain and spinal cord

false

33

viral meningitis is much more common than bacterial meningitis and tends to cause a milder form of disease

true

34

lifelong immunity is conferred once an individual has had botulism and recovered

false

35

if a normal protein typically found on the surface of nervous tissue cells comes into contact with an abnormally folded protein, it can lead to prion-related disease

true

36

autopsy of a stillborn fetus reveals the cause of death to be meningitis. Cultures show the presence of a gram positive rod. The likely pathogen is haemophilus influenza

false

37

botulism and tetanus are caused by bacterial endospores commonly found in the soil

true

38

there is an antitoxin for botulism. Why, then, is the outcome of botulism often fatal?

Botulism has a very low mortality rate, deaths are usually because they don't administer the antitoxin because they don't recognize that it's botulism.

39

advantages and disadvantages of the salk and sabin vaccines

salk vaccines contains all three types of viruses that is inactivated. IT require a series of injections

sabin vaccines is less expensive to manufacture and does not require a professional to administer. the attenuated strains of the disease reverts to virulence and cause the disease.

40

transmission and etiology of meningococcal meningitis

transmission is by droplet aerosols or direct contact with secretions. Caused by neisseria meningitidis

41

viral meningitis

clear CSF

no protein

normal glucose

few WBCs

42

bacterial meningitis

cloudy CSF

protein

low glucose

high WBCs

caused by haemophilus influenzae

43

haemophilus influenzae

aerobic gram negative bacterium

occurs mostly in children under 4, as young as 6 months

HIB vaccine

44

Neisseria meningitis

neisseria meningitidis, aerobic, gram negative

transmission is by gram droplet aerosols or direct contact with secretions

occurs in children under 2

45

streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis

gram positive, encapsulated diplococcus

S. pneumoiae

46

listeriosis

caused by Listeria monocytogenes. gram positive rod

causes stillbirth and neurological disease

foodbborne disease

47

tetanus

caused by Clostridium tetani

symptoms are caused by tetanospasmin

opithotonos - head and heels bow backwards

48

botulism

caused by Clostridium botulinum

treatment is antitoxin

symptoms include flaccid paralysis

transmitted by foodborne intoxication

49

leprosy

caused by Mycobacterium leprae

symptoms include loss of sensation in skin

treated with dapsone, rifampin, cloxamine

50

rabies

caused by lyssavirus

fatal infection

animal bite

vaccine

51

African trypanosomiasis

trypanosomiasis brucei

fatal infection

tsetse fly

treated with suramin and petamidine

52

creutzfeldt-jakob disease

prion

fatal infection

inherited

53

kuru

prion

contact or ingestion