Bio Exam 2

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Campbell Biology
Chapters 28-30, 35-37
Biology 121
updated 2 years ago by Raeann_Arends
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1

Name the organisms in the Excavata clade.

Diplomonada

Parabasilida

Kinetoplastida

Euglenophyta

2

Name all of the Stramenopilia ( SAR Clade).

Diatoms

Golden Algae

Brown Algae

Water molds

Coccolithophores

Heliozoans

3

Name the Alveolates.

Dinoflagella

Apicomplexa

Ciliophora

4

Name the Rhizarians

Radiolaria

Foraminifera

Cerozoa

5

Name the Archaeplastida.

Red Algae

Green Algae (Chlorophyta)

Green Algae (Charophyta)

Plantae

6

Name the Unikonta.

Amoebozoa

Nucleariida

Fungi

Choanoflagellata

Animalia

7

Define Endosymbiosis.

“Living with each other on the inside”, believed that Eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes engulfing other cells and becoming one – symbiotic relationship

8

Why can't Mitochondria be free living?

Over many years some of their DNA has been laterally transferred to the nucleus of their host cell.

9

What are Cyanobacteria?

Photosynthetic bacteria

10

How did plants originate from cyanobacteria?

They were engulfed by another cell and their chloroplasts remained, later forming plants

11

Who and when were protists named?

Ernst Haeckel 1866

12

Which protist causes malaria?

Plasmodium ( an apicomplexa, part of the alveolate clade)

13

What does plasmodium do in the body?

It invades liver cells first, then burst out and infects red blood cells to eat the hemoglobin therefore leading to anemia in people.

14

What is the difference between a Bikonta and a Unikonta?

Bikonta - Two Flagella

Unikonta - One Flagella

15

What shape do Excavata have?

Concave

16

Diplomonads have two nuclei, modified with modified mitochondria called what?

Mitosomes

17

Parabasalid (Excavata) have modified mitochondria called what?

Hydrogenosoams

18

Termites have what in their gut to help digest wood?

Trichonympha

19

What can lead to infections of the vagina?

Trichomonas

20

What causes T. brucei African sleeping sickness?

The Kineotplastida, Trypanosomes

21

What causes Chagas disease also known as South American sleeping disease?

T. cruzi

22

Are Euglenophyta (Excavata) mixotrophs or heterotrophs?

Mixotrophs

23

What does Stramenopila translate to?

Straw Whip

24

What gives Golden Algae its golden color?

Carotenoid pigments

25

Diatoms have a unique glass-like wall made of what? This helps with what?

Hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix -Overlap like a shoebos and protects them from jaw-smashing predators

26

What is a major component in phytoplankton?

Hydrated silica (test)

27

What is the body of a Brown Algae?

Thallus

28

What is the photosythentic pigment is Brown Algae called?

Fucocanthin

29

What are the alternation of generations?

1. Sporophytes undergo meiosis to make spores

2. Spores undergo mitosis to make gametophytes

3. Gametophytes undergo mitosis to make gametes

4. Gametes undergo fertilization to make sporophytes

30

What was responsible for the Irish potato famine?

Oomycota - Water Mold (SAR clade)

31

What are Coccolithophores?

Stramenopila that are aquatic protists. We make chalk from them. They are photosynthetic.

32

What is a bloom of Dinoflagellates (Alveolate)? Why is this dangerous?

A bloom of them is called a red tide, they can put out a toxin called saxitoxin – paralytic shellfish poisoning can come from eating shellfish that have absorbed the toxins from the dinoflagellates tides.

33

Noctiluca undergo bioluminescence. What is this?

The giving off light in response to physical shock

34

Why are Apicomplexa dangerous?

They have an apical complex that penetrates the host cell as a parasite. They secrete toxoplasma which is toxic to fetuses and is deadly in AIDS patients.

(90% of humans have been infected with it in their lifetime)

35

Ciliates (ciliophoran) (alveolate) are very complex heterotrophic cells covered in cilia. Why are the cilia important for the organism to be heterotrophic?

Some have barb like structures called trichocytes that are used to harpoon prey. They can also control each individual cilia.

36

What are Rhizaria known for?

Thread like pseudopods.

37

What are Radiolarian?

Photosynthetic marine with spiral pseudopods - part of the Rhizaria clade

38

What are Cercozoa?

Mixotrophic predatory amoebae with test - Rhizaria Clade

39

Why can Red Algae (archaeplastida) live in deeper water?

They have a pigment called phycoerythrin that can absorb the type of light that reaches deeper parts of water

40

What gives Green Algae (archaeplastida) their color?

Chlorophylls A and B

41

What is significant about Chlamydomonas flagella?

They can swim in a stoke like fashion

42

What is a Volvox?

A colony of green alga

43

What is Phycology?

The study of algae

44

Unikonta are distinct because of what?

They only have a singular flagella

45

What is Entamoeba? How is it spread?

It is a parasite in humans that leads to dysentery. It is usually spread through contaminated water.

46

Naegleria is Unikonta that lives in hot springs. Why is it dangerous?

It crawls into nasal cavities and kills the host because of brain damage

47

What are Nucleariidia?

Unikonta - with long threadlike pseudopods

48

What are special about Choanoflagellata's flagella?

They can beat their flagella to capture food. They can also form multicellular groups. - Heterotrophic!

49

How are all protists similar?

They are all Eukaryotes

50

What were the dangers of plants moving on land?

desiccation, uv light, lack of buoyancy

51

What helped plants move onto land?

Waxy cuticle, stomata (air holes), chlorophylls, xanthophyll’s, retain embryos “embyrophytes”, ligand to give strength to cell wall

52

What are the similarities between charophytes and plants?

Cellulose cell walls, chlorophylls A and B, and Beta carotenoid, Rosettes of cellulose secreting enzymes, stacked thylakoid membranes

53

How do mosses survive without a vascular system?

Perfusion - hence why they can't grow tall

54

Why do Bryophytes have Rhizoids?

They anchor them to the soil and acts as a conduit for water and nutrients

55

Name the stage of Bryophytes reproduction.

Haploid gametophyte stage to diploid sporophyte stage

56

What are male and female Bryophytes and what do they do?

• Female Archegonium produces egg (in a female gametophyte) (retain eggs)
• Male Antheridium produces sperm – release sperm

57

Why do Bryophytes need water for reproduction?

The sperm needs to swim to the egg

58

What is a sporangium?

A tip of a sporophyte that holds and releases spores

59

Describe peat blogs. What are they used for?

Layers of anaerobic and acid moss. They are used for fertilizer and fuel.

60

What are Phloem and Xylem?

Vascular tissue

61

What is a Lycophyta?

Seedless - Vascular plant - club moss

62

What is a Monilophyta ?

seedless vascular plant - fern