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Unit 7B

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1

cognition

refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking

2

concepts

mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, and people

3

prototypes

a mental image or best example that incorporates all the features we associate with a category

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algorithms

step-by-step procedures that guarantee a solution

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heuristic

a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms

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insight

a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solution

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creativity

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

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confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconception and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

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fixation

the inability to see a problem from a new perspective by employing a different mental set

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mental set

a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past

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functional fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving

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representative heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information

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availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory

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overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct

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belief perseverance

clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited

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intuition

an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning

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framing

the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgment

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language

our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

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phoneme

in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit

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morpheme

in a language, the smallest nit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word

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grammar

in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others

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semantics

the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also the study of meaning

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syntax

the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language

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babbling stage

at 4 month of age, babies enter this stage in which they spontaneously utter a variety of sounds

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one-word stage

the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words

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two-word stage

beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements

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telegraphic speech

early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram using mostly nouns and verbs

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linguistic determinism

Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think