Describe the Nebular Hypothesis
List and briefly describe Earth’s four major spheres
Identify and describe the steps of the scientific method
Compare and Contrast independant and dependant variables
Identify the number of protons and neutrons of an element.
Describe ionic, covalent, and metallic bonding.
Describe the conditions that cause chemical bonding.
List and describe the processes of mineral formation.
List and describe the methods of mineral identification.
Describe the different groups of minerals and identify examples of each.
Compare/Contrast Minerals and Rocks
Describe the rock cycle
An igneous rock forms when magma or lava cools. Over time, the igneous rock is broken down into smaller and smaller pieces, or sediments. The sediments become compacted and cemented together as more time passes and a sedimentary rock is formed. If the sedimentary rock is subjected to intense heat and pressure, it can form a metamorphic rock. The metamorphic rock can become an igneous rock again if it becomes buried deep beneath Earth’s surface and melts into magma.
Describe the different textures and compositions of the different types of rock and give examples of each.
Compare foliated and nonfoliated metamorphic rock.
Describe each of the different divisions of the geologic time scale
Describe the changes in life and earth during each era/period
Explain Radioactivity and radioactive dating.
Geologists know the rates of decay for many isotopes. For any rock or mineral sample that contains one of these isotopes, they can compare the ratio of the amount of the parent isotope with the ratio of the amount of the daughter products to find the sample’s age. Sedimentary rocks are made of multiple rocks.
Describe and calculate half life.
What principles are the basis for geologists to use for the study of geologic history?
Describe the law of supposition, cross cutting relationships, principle of horizontality.
The law of superposition states that in an undeformed sequence of sedimentary rocks, each bed is older than the one above it. The principle of horizontality states that layers of sediment are deposited horizontally. The principle of cross-cutting relationships states that a fault or an intrusion in layers of rock is younger than the rock into which it intrudes.
Describe angular unconformity, disconformity, unconformity.
What are fossils? What type of rock can they be found in? What has to happen for a fossil to form?
Compare and contrast Sonar, Satelite, and Submersibles
Compare and contrast the three types of glaciers
Define Saltation, Suspension, and Deposition
Describe the different stream erosion and deposition features.
List and describe the two types of glacier erosion.
Compare and contrast chemical and mechanical weathering
Why are scientists studying data in ice cores? What two types of data are they using?
Identify and Describe the layers of the earth including the type of rocks each layer is made of
Describe Wegener’s continental drift hypothesis and the problems and supporting evidence of it
Compare and Contrast the different plate boundaries
Identify evidence of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics
Describe mantle convection
Identify the features of a volcano
Identify and describe types of plutons
Sills resemble buried lava flows and may exhibit columnar joints; Laccoliths are lens-shaped masses that arch overlying strata upward; Dikes are tabular-shaped intrusive igneous features that cut across preexisting rock layers; Batholiths are large masses of igneous rock that formed when magma intruded at depth, became crystallized, and subsequently was exposed by erosion
Identify and describe the different types of volcanoes and give an example of each
Identify the factors that influence rock deformation
Identify the events that occur at different plate boundaries.
At divergent boundaries, volcanic activity occurs where the plates pull apart.Mantle rock rises to fill the gap between the plates. As the rock rises, decompression melting occurs. This forms magma, which erupts along the axis of the spreading center.Volcanoes form at convergent boundaries where two oceanic plates meet and oceanic lithosphere is subducted beneath another oceanic plate. This process results in the formation of a chain of volcanoes on the ocean floor. Most intraplate volcanism occurs where a mass of hotter-than-normal mantle material, called a mantle plume, rises toward the surface. Once the plume nears the top of the mantle, decompression melting forms magma. The result may be a small volcanic region a few hundred kilometers across called a hot spot.
Define and describe isostacy
Identify and describe the different types of mountains and how they form
Explain and define accretion.
Explain the different types of folds and faults
Anticlines are most commonly formed by the upfolding, or arching, of rock layers.; Synclines are linear downfolds in sedimentary strata.; Monoclines are large step-like folds in otherwise horizontal sedimentary strata. Normal faults occur when the hanging wall block moves down relative to the footwall block; Reverse faults are faults in which the hanging wall block moves up relative to the footwall block; Thrust faults are reverse faults with dips less than 45o; Strike-slip faults are faults in which the movement is horizontal and parallel to the trend, or strike, of the fault surface
Compare and Contrast Renewable and Nonrenewable resources and give examples of each.
Identify the advantages and disadvantages of solar, wind, water, and nuclear energy.
How do hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, and tidal power contribute to our energy resources?
Identify the major legislation that was put in place to help protect our resources.