Organizational Behaviour Final Exam

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1

Organizational behaviour is generally defined as a field of study that

a. investigates how organizations effectively face competition.

b. investigates how individuals, groups, and structure affect and are affected by behaviour within organizations.

c. attempts to understand and solve problems regarding individual behaviour on and off the job.

d. seeks ways and means to match human effort with machines.

e. examines how the structure of different organizations contributes to, or inhibits, effective communication.

Answer: B

2

SCENARIO 1-4: An operations manager at a local distribution and supply warehouse wants to learn more about the major determinants of productivity, absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction within her department. Although many options are available in gathering this information, she has decided to focus upon individual level, group level, and organizational systems level variables.

Referring to SCENARIO 1-4, communication styles, power and politics, and levels of conflict are ________ variables.

a. group level

b. organization systems level

c. individual level

d. corporate level

e. departmental level

Answer: A

3

SCENARIO 1-4: An operations manager at a local distribution and supply warehouse wants to learn more about the major determinants of productivity, absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction within her department. Although many options are available in gathering this information, she has decided to focus upon individual level, group level, and organizational systems level variables.

Referring to SCENARIO 1-4, one of the individual-level variables the operations manager will probably consider is

a. communication patterns.

b. job satisfaction.

c. levels of conflict.

d. human resource policies.

e. conflict resolution.

Answer: B

4

Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) refers to

a. the social needs of employees.

b. motivational strategies used by management.

c. doing tasks that are not part of normal job requirement.

d. organizational values and how they are implemented.

e. work that must be done as part of one's job description.

Answer: C

5

SCENARIO 1-3: Allison and Gail are both university students studying for a final exam in OB. Both students have a goal of making a grade of 90 percent or better despite the time pressures they seem to be facing. Gail studied diligently for six hours and made a grade of 92 percent. Allison studied diligently for nine hours and also made a grade of 92 percent.

Referring to SCENARIO 1-3, which of the students was effective?

a. Both Gail and Allison.

b. Only Gail.

c. Only Allison.

d. Neither Gail or Allison.

e. It is impossible to tell from the information given.

Answer: A

6

SCENARIO 1-3: Allison and Gail are both university students studying for a final exam in OB. Both students have a goal of making a grade of 90 percent or better despite the time pressures they seem to be facing. Gail studied diligently for six hours and made a grade of 92 percent. Allison studied diligently for nine hours and also made a grade of 92 percent.

Referring to SCENARIO 1-3, which of the following statements is most accurate?

a. Allison is more efficient than Gail.

b. Gail is more efficient than Allison.

c. Allison is more effective than Gail.

d. Gail is more effective than Allison.

e. It is impossible to predict efficiency or effectiveness in this case.

Answer: B

7

John feels like he is always "at work" because he can be reached on his mobile device at any time and he is always taking work home. His employer should

a. give him a raise.

b. tell him how much it appreciates his hard work.

c. upgrade his personal technology.

d. tell him to stop complaining since everyone else is working hard too.

e. help him to attain work-life balance.

Answer: E

8

Workforce diversity is a challenge for organizations in today's globalized world. To address this challenge, organizations try to

a. standardize operations so everyone feels equal.

b. accommodate different life and work styles.

c. ensure everyone can speak English.

d. hire fewer employees from different cultural backgrounds.

e. have standardized rules and policies on workplace communication.

Answer: B

9

In general, a(n) ________ is best described as a consciously coordinated social unit composed of two or more people who function on relatively continuous basis to achieve a set of goals.

a. union

b. family

c. company

d. organization

e. team

Answer: D

10

An organizational level challenge that exists in the Canadian workplace includes which of the following?

a. working with others

b. workforce diversity

c. developing effective employees

d. job satisfaction

e. empowerment

Answer: C

11

A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment is called

a. selective interpretation.

b. selective analysis.

c. perception.

d. selective outlook.

e. environmental assessment.

Answer : C

12

The most important reason why managers need to know how to measure personality is that research has shown that personality tests

a. are useful in hiring decisions.

b. are biased against minorities.

c. can avoid stereotyping.

d. can lead to a reduction in perceptual errors.

e. screen out people with Machiavellian tendencies.

Answer: A

13

Kyle does not like to work with people of a particular ethnicity even before he has met them. Kyle is exhibiting

a. selective perception.

b. stereotyping.

c. projection.

d. heredity.

e. prejudice.

Answer: E

14

Leroy has always been the type of person who is open to new experiences in both his personal and professional life. It wouldn’t be surprising, therefore, to find out that he

a. is more conventional.

b. is easily distracted.

c. would welcome the status quo.

d. is creative, curious, and artistic.

e. prefers being assertive.

Answer: D

15

In her quest to expand Northern Beverages, the HR manager acknowledges that she will need to hire an individual who is highly skilled in business strategy. She knows that university graduates who also participated extensively in athletics are usually ambitious and hardworking, compared with university students who did not. If she decides to interview only university grads who were athletes, she is likely engaging in

a. projection.

b. discrimination.

c. contrast effect.

d. risk management.

e. the halo effect.

Answer: B

16

You are a supervisor for a small retail store and have decided to apply the Big Five Personality Model to try and understand your subordinates and their work habits. You have determined that Brian is an extravert and Jim is not conscientious. Brian will likely

a. be shy and reserved.

b. perform well as a salesman because of his ability to be outgoing.

c. be unassertive and not do well as a salesman.

d. be quite comfortable with solitude and individual work.

e. be able to work well under pressure, as long as he is working as an individual and not as part of a team.

Answer: B

17

Tommy is the type of individual who is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes the ends can justify means in all that he does. He is exhibiting

a. a self-fulfilling prophesy.

b. projection.

c. prejudice.

d. Machiavellianism.

e. stereotyping.

Answer: D

18

Low self-monitors

a. have a high behavioural consistency between who they are and what they do in every situation.

b. are more likely than high selfmonitors to become leaders.

c. tend to pay more attention to the behaviour of others than do high self-monitors.

d. “act” throughout their entire life.

e. tend to be more mobile in their career and receive more promotions.

Answer: A

19

A(n) ________ individual is a person who is aggressively involved in a chronic incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time.

a. proactive

b. introvert

c. Type AB

d. Type B

e. Type A

Answer: A

20

Empathy is a dimension of

a. self-awareness.

b. social skills.

c. emotional intelligence.

d. self-motivation.

e. emotional labour.

Answer: C

21

The desire for a comfortable and prosperous life is a ________ value, while being ambitious, hardworking, and aspiring are ________ values.

a. relative; absolute

b. instrumental; ethical

c. terminal; instrumental

d. absolute; moral

e. absolute; relative

Answer: C

22

Research shows that Baby Boomers, who are one of the age groups of Canadians,

a. value a sense of accomplishment.

b. lack discipline.

c. are flexible.

d. are less willing to make personal sacrifices.

e. value happiness and pleasure.

Answer: A

23

A study on francophone and anglophone values suggests that

a. francophones are more individualistic than ever.

b. francophone managers favour behaviour that is beneficial to their own interests first.

c. anglophones are more collectivistic than ever.

d. francophone managers are more achievement oriented.

e. francophones have been shown to take more risks.

Answer: B

24

The judgment that “supervisors, auditors, and time-motion engineers are all conspiring to make employees work harder for less money” is an example of

a. an ethic.

b. a value.

c. a perception.

d. a decision.

e. an attitude.

Answer: E

25

Organizational commitment refers to the degree to which

a. employees identify with the organization’s purpose.

b. employees identify with the organization they work for and its goals.

c. employers are committed to their employees.

d. employers are committed to maintaining the membership of their employees.

e. employees and employers are both committed to each other.

Answer: B

26

If an employee’s attitude is negative toward his or her job, that employee likely does not have

a. organizational commitment.

b. shared values.

c. job satisfaction.

d. job commitment.

e. continuance commitment.

Answer: C

27

Tina really cares about the work she does and strongly identifies with her position and responsibilities. This is an example of

a. organizational citizenship behaviour.

b. core self-evaluation.

c. continuance commitment.

d. affective commitment.

e. job involvement.

Answer: E

28

An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he or she does is the concept of

a. normative commitment.

b. loyalty.

c. psychological empowerment.

d. employee engagement.

e. humane orientation.

Answer: D

29

Attitudes are evaluative statements about objects, people, or events. Attitudes in the workplace are important because they

a. show personalities or employees.

b. affect job behaviour.

c. predict differences in employee values.

d. show differences in job experience.

e. determine the need for training.

Answer: B

30

Denis Oil and Gas Ltd. is interested in forming a business partnership with Aboriginal peoples to develop oil and gas on First Nations’ land. Ground rules for developing business partnerships with Aboriginal peoples include

a. limiting the involvement of community members.

b. modifying management operations to increase the impact on wildlife.

c. recognizing and protecting Aboriginal and treaty rights.

d. leaving to Aboriginal peoples the need to protect all wildlife species.

e. leaving to Aboriginal peoples the need to maintain community access to land and resources.

Answer: C

31

SCENARIO 4-2 Your department is made up of people who are very different in their lifestyles and their stages of life. Mary is a 23- year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy, and works because he enjoys it. Jane is single, 45 years old, and has a strong desire to achieve job status and likes to receive recognition for her accomplishments. Sam is looking forward to the new benefits package which includes dental and prescription drug coverage. Ricardo enjoys the working environment where he feels like he belongs and is accepted. You have decided to attempt to apply Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to motivate each of these individuals.

Referring to SCENARIO 4-2, you would expect that Mary is trying to satisfy her

a. social need.

b. esteem need.

c. physiological need.

d. self-actualization need.

e. safety need.

Answer: C

32

SCENARIO 4-2 Your department is made up of people who are very different in their lifestyles and their stages of life. Mary is a 23- year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy, and works because he enjoys it. Jane is single, 45 years old, and has a strong desire to achieve job status and likes to receive recognition for her accomplishments. Sam is looking forward to the new benefits package which includes dental and prescription drug coverage. Ricardo enjoys the working environment where he feels like he belongs and is accepted. You have decided to attempt to apply Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to motivate each of these individuals.

Referring to SCENARIO 4-2, you would expect that Jane is attempting to satisfy her

a. social need.

b. esteem need.

c. physiological need.

d. self-actualization need.

e. safety need.

Answer: B

33

SCENARIO 4-2 Your department is made up of people who are very different in their lifestyles and their stages of life. Mary is a 23- year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy, and works because he enjoys it. Jane is single, 45 years old, and has a strong desire to achieve job status and likes to receive recognition for her accomplishments. Sam is looking forward to the new benefits package which includes dental and prescription drug coverage. Ricardo enjoys the working environment where he feels like he belongs and is accepted. You have decided to attempt to apply Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to motivate each of these individuals.

Referring to SCENARIO 4-2, you would expect that Jonathan is trying to satisfy his

a. social need.

b. esteem need.

c. physiological need.

d. self-actualization need.

e. safety need.

Answer: D

34

SCENARIO 4-2 Your department is made up of people who are very different in their lifestyles and their stages of life. Mary is a 23- year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy, and works because he enjoys it. Jane is single, 45 years old, and has a strong desire to achieve job status and likes to receive recognition for her accomplishments. Sam is looking forward to the new benefits package which includes dental and prescription drug coverage. Ricardo enjoys the working environment where he feels like he belongs and is accepted. You have decided to attempt to apply Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to motivate each of these individuals.

Referring to SCENARIO 4-2, you would expect that Sam is trying to satisfy his

a. social need.

b. esteem need.

c. physiological need.

d. self-actualization need.

e. safety need.

Answer: E

35

SCENARIO 4-2 Your department is made up of people who are very different in their lifestyles and their stages of life. Mary is a 23- year-old single parent who is working for minimum wage. Jonathan is 60 years old, extremely wealthy, and works because he enjoys it. Jane is single, 45 years old, and has a strong desire to achieve job status and likes to receive recognition for her accomplishments. Sam is looking forward to the new benefits package which includes dental and prescription drug coverage. Ricardo enjoys the working environment where he feels like he belongs and is accepted. You have decided to attempt to apply Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to motivate each of these individuals.

Referring to SCENARIO 4-2, you would expect that Ricardo is trying to satisfy his

a. social need.

b. esteem need.

c. physiological need.

d. self-actualization need.

e. safety need.

Answer: A

36

Kim likes to take on tasks where she knows that, if she puts in enough effort, she will be able to achieve good performance on the task. This is known as

a. expectancy.

b. valence.

c. instrumentality.

d. self-actualization.

e. motivation.

Answer: A

37

Individuals who compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond, so as to eliminate any inequities, are demonstrating

a. self -efficacy theory.

b. goal -setting theory.

c. contingency theory.

d. equity theory.

e. expectancy theory.

Answer: D

38

Based on equity theory, when employees perceive they are under - rewarded, they

a. exert more effort in performing their jobs in order to re -establish equity.

b. will automatically quit the job and look somewhere else.

c. will always exert more effort of higher quality to warrant an increase in rewards.

d. will get disillusioned and automatically compare their job to some other job of lesser or equal value in an attempt to feel better about the inequity.

e. may exert less effort, may ask for more compensation, and may choose a different referent person.

Answer: E

39

Interest, challenge, and personal satisfaction are considered ________ motivators, while pay and benefits are considered ________ motivators.

a. intrinsic; environmental

b. intrinsic; extrinsic

c. extrinsic; environmental

d. environmental; internal

e. extrinsic; intrinsic

Answer: B

40

According to your text, the three key elements of motivation are intensity, direction, and

a. focus.

b. persistence.

c. action.

d. needs.

e. process.

Answer: B

41

SCENARIO 5-2 As a consultant who specializes in group dynamics, you are observing Stack Inc.’s self-managed teams, which are in different stages of development. Stack is a medium-sized manufacturing business with a diversity of employees at all levels. You have labelled the teams A, B, C, D, and E.

Referring to SCENARIO 5-2, Team D has resolved its issues of leadership and is devoting all of its energy to getting the job done. This team is in the ______________ stage.

a. forming

b. storming

c. norming

d. performing

e. controlling

Answer: D

42

SCENARIO 5-2 As a consultant who specializes in group dynamics, you are observing Stack Inc.’s self-managed teams, which are in different stages of development. Stack is a medium-sized manufacturing business with a diversity of employees at all levels. You have labelled the teams A, B, C, D, and E.

Referring to SCENARIO 5-2, the members of Team A are meeting and focused on setting their formal norms and clarifying expectations for the work to be done. This team seems to be in the _____________ stage.

a. forming

b. storming

c. norming

d. performing

e. controlling

Answer: C

43

SCENARIO 5-2 As a consultant who specializes in group dynamics, you are observing Stack Inc.’s self-managed teams, which are in different stages of development. Stack is a medium-sized manufacturing business with a diversity of employees at all levels. You have labelled the teams A, B, C, D, and E.

Referring to SCENARIO 5-2, the members of Team B are meeting for the first time and wondering why they are there. This team seems to be in the _____________ stage.

a. forming

b. storming

c. norming

d. performing

e. controlling

Answer: A

44

SCENARIO 5-2 As a consultant who specializes in group dynamics, you are observing Stack Inc.’s self-managed teams, which are in different stages of development. Stack is a medium-sized manufacturing business with a diversity of employees at all levels. You have labelled the teams A, B, C, D, and E.

Referring to SCENARIO 5-2, Team C, on the other hand, shows significant resistance to its appointed leader’s guidance, and there is a lot of arguing over roles within the group. This team seems to be in the ____________ stage.

a. forming

b. storming

c. norming

d. performing

e. controlling

Answer: B

45

A team is

a. any group of people working together.

b. a number of people working together toward and accountable for a common goal.

c. people, like factory workers, who perform the same tasks.

d. a group of people with a common relationship.

e. members of the same department.

Answer: B

46

Suppose an ad hoc group forms to help eliminate a parking problem within their organization. As the group begins to work on this project, a new public transportation system is introduced and fewer employees drive to work. Discovering that its mission is no longer needed, the group gradually disbands and eventually stops meeting altogether. In what stage of development does this group appear to be?

a. forming

b. norming

c. storming

d. performing

e. adjourning

Answer: E

47

Organizations have turned to teams as a better way to use employees’ talents. This is because teams

a. are quick to accomplish tasks.

b. are slower to deploy, thereby commitment is strengthened.

c. know how to work closely together.

d. are more flexible and more responsive to changes than individuals.

e. have cohesiveness among members.

Answer: D

48

Groups become a “team” when

a. members get to know one another.

b. a leader is appointed.

c. members accept and share accountability for the work.

d. each member understands his or her own goal in the task.

e. the president of the company tells them they are a team.

Answer: C

49

Tony was not being an effective team member. He is acting as if he is quite willing to have his team members “carry” him on the project that they are all supposed to be working on. Tony is exhibiting

a. groupthink.

b. norming.

c. role conflict.

d. group diversity.

e. social loafing.

Answer: E

50

Evidence suggests that teams outperform individuals when the task being done requires

a. synopsis.

b. fewer skills, which leads to higher efficiency.

c. multiple skills.

d. simple skills.

e. completion within a tight time frame.

Answer: C

51

Creativity will be enhanced if

a. the person given the project is being watched so that others may learn the process.

b. resource allocation is fair and efficient.

c. the person given the project is granted freedom in determining the process required to complete the project.

d. the situation is a win-lose situation.

e. there are limits set on how the work must be done, thus enabling the person doing the project to find more creative coping skills and more creative ways of doing the work.

Answer: C

52

Who of the following is encoding a message?

a. Marta, who is writing a technical report.

b. Hillary, who is hearing a rumour on the grapevine.

c. Flora, who is reading an email from her boss.

d. Heather, who is the target of upward communication.

e. Elise, who is giving a speech.

Answer: A

53

The final step in the communication process is

a. decoding the message.

b. the feedback loop.

c. deciding on the channel of feedback.

d. deciding on the context of communication.

e. translating the process.

Answer: B

54

Messages conveyed through body movements, the intonations or emphasis we give to words, and the physical distance between the sender and receiver are all referred to as

a. nonverbal communication.

b. kinesics.

c. reflex.

d. proxemics.

e. informal communication.

Answer: A

55

The medium through which communication travels is called

a. the receiver.

b. the message.

c. the feedback mechanism.

d. the channel.

e. the translation mechanism.

Answer: D

56

It is important to consider the ________ of the situation when deciding upon the message, the communication channel, and the formality of the message.

a. defensiveness

b. goals

c. workplace

d. context

e. dimensions

Answer: D

57

Channel richness is determined by the ability of the channel to

a. handle multiple cues, and appeal to a diverse group of individuals.

b. handle multiple cues at the same time, be personal, and allow rapid feedback.

c. handle multiple cues, and aid in downward communication.

d. be accurate, and support the encoder and decoder.

e. support the grapevine, be impersonal, and allow for immediate feedback.

Answer: B

58

A form of communication that is often misinterpreted and which can be taken as expressing either dissatisfaction or agreement with the majority is

a. prejudice.

b. selective perception.

c. defensiveness.

d. filtering.

e. silence.

Answer: E

59

Face-to-face communication

a. scores highest in terms of channel richness.

b. provides for a minimum amount of information to be transmitted.

c. delays feedback.

d. offers minimal information cues.

e. provides the poorest quality of information and meaning.

Answer: A

60

A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them is

a. negotiation.

b. conflict management.

c. problem solving.

d. BATNA.

e. selective perception.

Answer: A

61

Power is defined as

a. the capacity to persuade others.

b. dependency upon others.

c. the right to make rules.

d. being rewarded by others.

e. independence.

Answer: A

62

The most important aspect of power is that it

a. is needed to get things done in an organization.

b. is a function of dependency.

c. tends to corrupt people.

d. is counterproductive.

e. is the major focus of leadership.

Answer: B

63

Zhubin is a manager at EXX Co. He believes that part of his job is to make things happen quickly. Consequently, he uses ________ power where he makes things difficult for his employees, who in turn want to avoid confrontations and heated exchanges with him.

a. legitimate

b. referent

c. coercive

d. political

e. harassment

Answer: C

64

Ted is very good about being friendly at all times with his employees, and he always makes a point of praising them when they do good work. What type of power is Ted using?

a. legitimate

b. information

c. referent

d. reward

e. expert

Answer: D

65

Carrie is one of the most important people in the office because she is the person to turn to when people have problems with their computers. Carrie has ________ power.

a. positional

b. legitimate

c. referent

d. dependent

e. expert

Answer: E

66

Aisha is the manager of her department and she expects Tia to comply with her requests regarding workplace policies and directives. Aisha is using the ________ power base to influence Tia.

a. legitimate

b. reward

c. coercive

d. referent

e. expert

Answer: A

67

Celebrities are paid millions of dollars to endorse products in commercials because the advertisers believe the celebrities have ________ power that will sell their products.

a. coercive

b. referent

c. expert

d. reward

e. status

Answer: B

68

Workplace bullying and sexual harassment are

a. the advantages of power.

b. coalition strategies of power.

c. abuses of power.

d. political examples.

e. effective strategies to implement legitimate power.

Answer: C

69

Stephanie is a stern boss who gets the most out of her employees by trying to intimidate them. She regularly makes them work overtime for no additional compensation by threatening them. This is an example of

a. postulating.

b. influence.

c. power.

d. workplace bullying.

e. dependency.

Answer: D

70

Jason has a screen saver of a naked woman on his business computer. This is an example of

a. ingratiation.

b. politics.

c. lobbying.

d. empowerment.

e. harassment.

Answer: E

71

Managers rely on control strategies to get things done, whereas leaders ________ followers to internalize values.

a. task

b. persuade

c. empower

d. reward

e. require

Answer: C

72

If the trait theory of leadership is valid, then it can be said that leaders are

a. goal-oriented.

b. born.

c. relationship-oriented.

d. employee-oriented.

e. trainable.

Answer: B

73

Leaders who emphasize interpersonal relations are described in the University of Michigan studies as

a. employee-oriented.

b. initiating consideration.

c. country club leaders.

d. relationship-oriented.

e. team-oriented leaders.

Answer: A

74

John Kotter of the Harvard Business School argues that

a. managers have poorer communication skills than leaders.

b. employees tend to like managers more than they like leaders.

c. managers are less honest in dealings with employees than leader.

d. managers promote stability and leaders press for change.

e. managers user more coercive power than leaders.

Answer: D

75

Elliott is a team leader who consults with employees and uses their suggestions before making a decision. According to path-goal theory, Elliott is

a. a supportive leader.

b. a participative leader.

c. an achievement oriented leader.

d. a charismatic leader.

e. a directive leader.

Answer: B

76

Organizational characteristics such as explicit goals and rigid rules can

a. replace formal leadership.

b. lead to poor organizational performance.

c. boost employee efficiency.

d. lead to higher profits.

e. promote employee empowerment.

Answer: A

77

Tom is the new CEO, and one of the main reasons he was hired was that he has the ability to inspire followers during times of great change. Tom is likely a

a. transactional leader.

b. charismatic leader.

c. visionary leader.

d. exceptional leader.

e. change leader.

Answer: B

78

You have just been assigned to work in a new area, and your new boss is a woman. According to your text, you should expect your new boss to rely on a more ________ style of management than your former boss, who was a man.

a. futuristic

b. authoritative

c. directive

d. democratic

e. competitive

Answer: D

79

Donald has befriended Ron, a new employee in his department. Donald has provided Ron with advice on how to survive and get ahead in the organization and has acted as a sounding board for ideas that Ron had been hesitant to share with their boss. Donald is serving as a ________ to Ron.

a. manager

b. leader

c. protégé

d. mentor

e. visionary

Answer: D

80

10. Emotional intelligence (EI) is ______________ for effective leadership.

a. incidental

b. not necessary

c. critical

d. predictable

e. empowering

Answer: C

81

Decision making would be best described as an exercise in

a. establishing criteria and strategies to advance our goals.

b. evaluating and analyzing options.

c. making choices between two or more options.

d. making opportunities work.

e. focusing on advancement and progression through opportunities.

Answer: C

82

What is the first step in the rational decision-making process?

a. establishing and evaluating alternatives to solve the problem

b. defining the problem

c. seeking out the reasons for the problem

d. determining the criteria that will be used to make the decision

e. doing the research necessary in order to define the problem

Answer: B

83

Ysanne uses intuition to make many of her decisions. Intuitive decisions are usually

a. based on experience.

b. “good enough.”

c. irrational.

d. ineffective.

e. optimizing.

Answer: A

84

Wherever possible, groupthink should be avoided because it results in

a. conflict within the group.

b. more risky decisions.

c. an anchored bias.

d. reduced effectiveness.

e. representative heuristics.

Answer: D

85

The evidence indicates that, on average, groups make

a. less expensive decisions than individuals because of the optimal choices made.

b. more expensive decisions than individuals because of the lengthy time needed to make the decisions.

c. less creative solutions than individuals because of time restrictions.

d. faster decisions than individuals because of the division of labour.

e. better quality decisions than individuals.

Answer: E

86

Irena is faced with a problem whose solution requires a high degree of creativity. What is the best approach to solving this problem?

a. Solve it herself.

b. Let her most trusted employee solve it.

c. Ask a group of employees to solve it.

d. Outsource the problem to a consultant.

e. Ask her boss what to do.

Answer: C

87

You are a supervisor at the nearby plant. You have been trying to explain to your employees some of the benefits of group decisions. You want the group to try ______________ to generate more ideas and alternatives for the issue at hand.

a. the nominal group technique

b. brainstorming

c. intuition

d. groupthink

e. creativity

Answer: B

88

Creativity will be enhanced if

a. the person given the project is being watched so that others may learn the process.

b. resource allocation is fair and efficient.

c. the person given the project is granted freedom in determining the process required to complete the project.

d. the situation is a win-lose situation.

e. there are limits set on how the work must be done, thus enabling the person doing the project to find more creative coping skills and more creative ways of doing the work.

Answer: C

89

________ will increase the level of creativity employees are able to achieve.

a. Time restrictions

b. Group homogeneity

c. Win-lose situations

d. Job challenges

e. Restricted resources

Answer: D

90

Encouraging employees to volunteer time and skills to charitable organizations is an example of

a. a stage of moral development.

b. corporate social responsibility.

c. an ethical code of conduct.

d. whistle-blowing.

e. ethical actions based on justice.

Answer: B

91

The pattern of shared values, beliefs, and assumptions among people who belong to an organization is generally referred to as

a. organizational culture.

b. a subculture.

c. a group of artifacts.

d. a socialization program.

e. a code of ethics.

Answer: A

92

Cory’s organization was very good about maintaining rituals and retelling stories about significant events from the past. These are examples of

a. the subculture.

b. artifacts.

c. vision.

d. mission.

e. values.

Answer: B

93

Organizational culture

a. conveys a sense of organizational identity.

b. lowers overhead costs because employees work harder.

c. improves the manager’s ability to hire competent employees.

d. generates a stronger financial position.

e. discourages networking.

Answer: A

94

Whenever a new employee is hired in his department, Peter makes sure that the new person understands the norms and culture of the organization. This process is known as

a. a subculture.

b. adaptation.

c. socialization.

d. a sustainable culture.

e. selection.

Answer: C

95

Scott is starting a new business. He understands the importance of culture and would like to establish early on a strong culture within his business. Scott has come to you for good advice on how to do this. You tell him he can do this by

a. encouraging employees to think outside the box.

b. delegating to only a few key employees.

c. hiring employees who think and feel the way he does, and by being a role model to them.

d. encouraging employees to think independently.

e. encouraging employees to service the clients’ needs.

Answer: C

96

The three-step model of change consists of

a. unfreezing, change, stabilization.

b. changing, stabilization, continuing.

c. unfreezing, moving, refreezing.

d. unfreezing, stabilizing, refreezing.

e. changing, moving, stabilizing.

Answer: C

97

The ________ strategy to merge cultures works best when one company’s culture is strong as compared with the other company’s culture.

a. separation

b. assimilation

c. integration

d. cross-cultural

e. refreezing

Answer: B

98

Change is more likely to be smooth and effective when the company

a. sets a specific end date for the change.

b. implements change in the background.

c. communicates its rationale.

d. uses force to implement the change.

e. hires a change agent from outside the company.

Answer: C

99

You have heard that your department is going to reorganize. You are opposed to the reorganization because you fear you may lose your job. The reason for your resistance is

a. low tolerance for change.

b. self-interest.

c. perceptual error.

d. selective information processing.

e. cynicism.

Answer: B

100

Shanice has noticed that, since most of her staff has been with the organization for a long time, although they seem to want to change their behaviour to adapt to changes in the organization, their strong group norms seem to be holding them back. This is an example of

a. self-interest.

b. selective information processing.

c. economic factors.

d. group inertia.

e. need for security.

Answer: D