Previous Tests

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1

An _____ supplies blood to the heart.

vein

2

A red blood cell would ______ in pure water.

swell and burst.

3

Which structures are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing cells of surface area?

microvilli

4

______ is the main component of the cytosol.

water.

5

Crenation is likely to occur in blood cells in _______ solution.

hypertonic.

6

Smallest living unit in the human body is ______.

the cell.

7

Some cells contain large numbers of mitochondria, while others have few or none. This suggests _________.

Cells with largest number of mitochandria have high energy demand.

8

Skin swells and puckers with long bath. Bath water is a ______ solution.

hypotonic.

9

Persons intervertebral discs exhibit large amounts of tensile strength to absorb shock because they exhibit _____.

collagen fibers.

10

______ tissue has lacunae, calcium salts, blood vessels.

osseous tisses

11

Epithelial tissues have a __________.

basement membrane.

12

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lines the __________.

respiratory tract.

13

Matrix is composed of _______.

cells and fibers.

14

Fiber type that gives CT its great tensile strength is _________.

collagen.

15

Shape of external ear is maintained by _________.

elastic cartilage

16

Study of the heart may incorporate many aspects of anatomy, but as a whole you would say it is ________ anatomy.

gross.

17

Histology is defined as _________.

the study of tissue

18

Increased rate of breathing as a result of an increase build up of CO2 in blood stream would be _________.

excretion of metabolic waste.

19

Average body temp in celcius is _____.

37 degrees

20

What statement is true concerning feedback mechanism?

negative feedback mechanism to prevent sudden severe change within body.

21

Smallest to largest body structure:

atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ.

22

In what abdominal cavity is the stomach?

LUQ

23

Survival needs of body are _________.

nutrients, water, atmosphere, pressure, oxygen.

24

_______ is necessary for proper conduction of nerve impulse.

NA.

25

A solution that has a PH of 2 could be described as ______.

acidic.

26

Enzymes ________ activation energy needed to start a reaction.

lower.

27

A dipole is a __________.

polar molecule.

28

_____ does NOT influence reaction.

time.

29

Which is true regarding the generation of a membrane potential?

both potassium and sodium ions can leak through the cell membrane due to diffusion.

30

The shape of the external ear is maintained by ______.

elastic cartilage.

31

Glands such as the thyroid that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as _______.

endocrine.

32

Epithelium appears to have 2 or 3 layers of cells, but _________ are attached to the basement membrane.

pseudostatified columnar epithelium

33

A multilayer epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be classified as ______.

stratified squamous.

34

______ is NOT considered a connective tissue.

muscle.

35

First step in tissue repair involves ________.

inflammation.

36

Each of the following is a function of the integumentary system except ________.

synthesis of vitamin C.

37

Large quantities of keratin are found in the epidermal layer called the _________.

stratum corneum.

38

Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed _________.

insensible perspiration.

39

Glands that discharge an oily secretion into hair follicles are _____ glands.

sebaceous.

40

Ear wax is produced by ______.

ceruminous

41

An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is ________.

vitamin D

42

A needle would pierce the epidermis at the forearm in which order?

Corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale

43

The dermis has _______ layers.

2.

44

Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure? _______.

meissers corpuscle

45

If a splinter penetrated the skin into the 2nd epidermal layer of the sole of the foot which cells would be damaged?

lucidum

46

Dermis has 2 major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?

the reticular layer.

47

The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. the secretion of sebum is stimulated by _______.

hormones, especially androgens.

48

_____ is the first threat to life from a massive 3rd degree burn.

fluid loss.

49

Using the ________ helps physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with dangerous fluid loss caused from the burn.

rule of nines

50

When the arrector pilli muscles contract ________ are formed.

goosebumps.

51

Calcium hemostasis, BC production, protection of internal organs, and body support are functions of the ________.

skeletal system.

52

________ are irregular shaped bones.

vertebrae.

53

A rib is an example of a _____ bone.

flat.

54

_________ are cells that secrete organic compounds of bone matrix.

osteoblasts.

55

Central canal of osteon contains ________.

blood vessels.

56

Shaft of a long bone is called __________.

diaphysis.

57

Secondary ossification centers occur in the _______.

epiphyses.

58

Elevated levels of calcium in blood stimulate secretion of _______.

calcitonin.

59

When stress is applied to a bone __________.

minerals produce weak electrical signal that attracks osteoblasts.

60

Small odd shaped bones that fill gaps in skull are ________.

sutures.

61

_______ is a hole through a bone.

foramen.

62

Structural units of mature, compact bone are called _______

osteocytes.

63

Articular cartilage of a long bone is composed of ______ cartilage.

hyaline.

64

When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of metaphysis at same rate as bone, it causes bone to ______.

grow longer.

65

_______ is NOT part of axial skeleton.

pectoral girdle.

66

External acoustic meatus is a foramen found in ______ skull bone.

temporal.

67

_________ is the smallest facial bone.

lacrimal bone.

68

Lumbar vertebrae are most massive and ______ mobile.

least.

69

Fibrous CT is called _________ and accomodates brain growth in infant.

fontanels.

70

Styloid process, zygomatic process, auditory ossicle are all associated with __________.

temporal bone.

71

Xyphoid process, body, jug notch, and manubrium are all part of the _______.

sternum.

72

Most mammals including giraffes has _____ cervical vertabrae.

7.

73

The ________ transports weight along axis of body.

Veterbral body.

74

_______ curves of the spine develop during fetal development.

primary.

75

Nurses suspect possible dehydration when she checks the __________ in an infant.

anterior fontanel for depression.

76

Skull contains ______ bones.

22

77

_______ can be distinguished from other vertebrae by presence of facets for articulation of ribs.

thoracic vert.

78

The ondontoid process is found in the _____.

axis.

79

Exaggerated lateral curvature is termed ______.

scoliosis.

80

There are ______ carpal bones located in the wrist which form _______ rows of bones.

8 and 2.

81

In anatomical position, the ulna is located _____ to the radius.

medial.

82

Each coxal bone consists of 3 fused bones: ____, _____,_____.

ilium, ischium, pubis.

83

Angle of pubic arch being greater than 100 degrees is NOT a characteristic of a _____ pelvis.

male.

84

_____ aka heel bone.

calcaneus.

85

Medial bulge at ankle is a projection from the _____.

tibia.

86

_______ is a surface feature present along the lateral border of the shaft of humerus.

deltoid tuberosity.

87

Clavicle articulates with the scapula ______ with the acromion.

distally.

88

An immovable joint is a _______.

Synarthrosis

89

Movement away from the midline of the body is _____.

abduction.

90

Monoaxial joints are known as _____ joints.

hinge.

91

Extreme bending of head backward is an example of ________.

hyperextension.

92

Joints can be classified as ____, _____, ______, _______.

fibrous, bony, synovial, or cartlaginous.

93

Twisting motion of foot that turns sole of foot OUTWARD is known as _______.

Eversion.

94

________ enables ballerinas to stand on their toes.

plantar flexion.

95

________ is a good example of supination.

turning palm upward.

96

Nodding head yes is an example of _______.

flexion and extension.

97

_______ is an example of ball and socket joint.

shoulder.

98

_______ are small spaces in bone tissue in which osteocytes live.

lacunae.

99

A RBC placed in hypertonic water would _______.

shrink.?????

100

The hip joint is a good example of a _______ joint.

multiaxial.

101

An example of interosseous fibrous joint is ________.

the radius and ulna along its length.

102

What is the role of tropomyosin in the skeletal muscle?

serves as a contraction inhibitor by blocking the myosin binding sites on the actin molecules.

103

______ muscles have the greatest ability to regenerate.

smooth.

104

Most skeletal muscles contain a _______ of fiber types.

mixture.

105

Excitation-contraction coupling requires which of the following substances?

Ca2+ and ATP.

106

________ function in calcium storage in skeletal muscles.

sarcoplasmic reticulum.

107

Myogloin _______.

stores oxygen in muscle cells.

108

________ are composed in myosin.

thick filaments.

109

During muscle contraction, myosin cross bridges attach to ______.

actin filaments.

110

A ______ is the functional unit of a skeletal muscle.

sarcomere.

111

During exercise, there may be insufficient oxygen available to completely break down pyruvate energy. As a result, the pyruvic acid is converted to _______.

lactic acid.

112

An anaerobic metabolic pathway that results in the production of 2 net ATPs per glucose plus 2 ? molecules is _______.

glycolysis.

113

The sliding filament model of contraction involves ______.

actin and myosin sliding past each other and partially overlapping.

114

A long relaxing swim would best represent a ______ muscle fiber.

red.

115

_______ is a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement.

agonist.

116

When the term biceps, triceps form a part of a muscles name, what does it tell you?

the muscle has 2, or 3 origins respectively.

117

There are over _____ muscles in the body.

600.

118

What does the term levator mean?

elevates or abducts a region

119

A child sticks her tongue out at you, she is using her ______ muscle.

genioglossius.

120

Which muscle is involved in crossing one leg over the other?

the sartorious.

121

Which muscle inserts by the calcaneal tendon?

the gastrocnemius.

122

A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a_____.

synergist.

123

An infant develops a powerful sucking muscle that adults also use for whistling. This is the ______ muscle.

buccinator.

124

Spasms of the straplike muscle often result in torticollis. These muscles are the _____.

sternocleidomastoid.

125

Which muscle is the main muscle for breathing?

Diaphragm.

126

Muscles that are contracted to exhale forcefully?

internal intercostal and rectus abdominus.

127

Paralysis of which muscle would make an individual unable to flex the knee?

hamstring muscle.

128

The temporalis muscle passes through or under the _____.

zygomatic arch.

129

_____ is the only knee flexor that originates superior to the acetabulum.

sartorious.

130

NOT a function of the astrocytles:

defense for the CNS

131

What ciliated CNS nueralgia are active in the movement of cerebrospinal fluid?

ependymal cells

132

Bipolar neurons could be mos commonly found in the ______.

retina of the eye.

133

________ is an excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by the motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscles.

ACh

134

What part of the neuron is responsible for conducting impulses AWAY from its body?

axon

135

What is NOT a special feature of neurons?

mitosis

136

Ion channels opening in reponse to change in the membrane potential that conducts action potentials are known as _______.

voltage gated channels.

137

What is the role of acetycholinerase?

destroys ACH

138

_______ are collections of nerve bodies outside the CNS.

ganglion.

139

What is the substance released at the axon terminals to cause nervous impulses called?

neurotransmitter

140

Saltatory conduction is made possible by

myelin sheath

141

After the peak of the action potential, _____ gates open

potassium

142

Thyroid hormone exerts its influence by:

entering some cells and binding to their internal receptors

143

__________ is known as "fight or flight" hormone.

epinephrine