Pregnancy and Human development

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1
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somite

2

implantation is usually completed after

the blastocyst is entirely surrounded by endometrium

3

the chorionic membrane forms by which of the following layers in a developing embryo?

cytotrophoblast and syncitiotrophoblast

both B and C

4

which structure represents the remnant of the right to left atrial fetal shunt

fossa ovalis

5

which structure below is formed from endodermal tissue

esophagus

6

which structure below is formed from ectodermal tissues

brain

7

raised edged dorsal groove on early embryonic disc that establishes the longitudinal axis of the embryo is

primitive streak

8

which of the following is not a function of the placenta

urine formation

9

embryonic period from 2 to ___ weeks

8 weeks

10

the process which transforms the embryo into a three-layered stage is called

gastrulation

11

rod of mesodermal cells that serves as axial support is

notocord

12

abortion

expulsion of fetus before 20 weeks of gestation

13

hypoblast cells that form a sac on the ventral surface of the embryo called

yolk sac

14

the function of the ductus arteriosus is to

bypass the pulmonary circuit

15

following fertilization the zygote goes through a rapid period of cell division called

cleavage

16
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allantois

17

Which trimester is for weight gain

3rd trimester

18

Secondary oocyte completes the first meiotic division

at the time of ovulation

19

The second polar body forms from the secondary oocyte

after fertilization by sperm cell

20

the 16 or more cell stage (72 hours old)

morula

21

the cell layer which looses their plasma membranes and invade the endometrium is

syncitiotrophoblast

22

placenta forms from

embryonic trophoblasts and maternal endometrium

both A and B

23

Teratogenic (leading to structural deformity in newborn) drug such as thalidomide or phenothiazine mostly affect which stage of pregnancy and development

1st trimester

24

implantation is usually completed after

the blastocyst is entirely surrounded by endometrium

25

the outermost embryonic membrane is the

chorion

26

the process which transforms the embryo into a three-layered stage is called

gastrulation

27

How many weeks does the embryonic period last

8 weeks

28

epiblast cells on the dorsal surface of embryonic disc form a transparent membrane filled with fluid called

amnion

29

a small outpocketing at the caudal end of the yolk sac

allantois

30

organogenesis occurs during

1st trimester

31

raised edged dorsal groove on early embryonic disc that establishes the longitudinal axis of the embryo is

primitive streak

32

by the fourth or fifth day the pre-embryo consists of 100 cells called ____ stage

blastocyst

33

implantation is completed by the ___ day after ovulation

5th

34

allantois provides structural base for the ____

umbilical cord

35

there are ___ pairs of somites

40

36

somites have three functional parts

sclerotome, dermatome, myotome

37

Embryonic development of the digestive system (3rd week)

endoderm has folded and foregut and hindgut have formed

the midgut is open and continuous with the yolk sac

mouth and anal openings are nearly formed

38

8th week

accessory organs are budding from endoderm

39

rooting reflex

helps infants find the nipple

40

suckling reflex

aids in swallowing

41

morula

the 16 or more cells stage (72 hours old). By the fourth or fifth day the pre embryo consists of 100 or so cells

42

ectoderm

forms structures of the nervous system and skin epidermis

43

endoderm

forms epithelial linings of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital systems

44

mesoderm

forms all the other tissues

45

sclerotome

produce the vertebrae and ribs

46

dermatome

help form the dermis of the skin on the dorsal part of the body

47

myotome

form the skeletal muscles of the neck, trunk, and limbs

48

ductus venosus

venous shunt that by passes the liver

49

foramen ovale

opening in the interatrial septa to bypass pulmonary circulation

50

the chorionic membrane is formed by which of the following layers in a developing embryo?

cytotrophoblast and syncitiotrophoblast

both B and C

51

the umbilica cords becomes

ligamentum teres

52

ductus venosus becomes

ligamentum venosum

53

umbilical arteries becomes

medial umbilical ligaments

54

the foramen ovale becomes

fossa ovalis

55

ductus arteriosus becomes

ligamentum arteriosum

56

vasectomy

cutting and ligating the ducdtus deferens

57

ejaculation

propulsion of semen from the male duct system

58

suspensory

anchors the ovary laterally to the pelvic wall

59

mesovarium

suspends the ovary in between

60

broad ligament

contains the suspensory ligament and mesovarium

61

mittelschmerz

a twinge of pain sometimes felt at ovulation

62

Days 1-5

menstrual phase. uterus sheds all but the deepest part of the endometrium

63

days 6-14

proliferative (preovulatory) phase. endometrium rebuilds itself

64

Days 15-28

secretory (postovulatory) phase. endometrium prepares for implantation of the embryo

65

implantation of a blastocyst

inner cell mass

trophoblast

blastocyst activity

syncytiotrophoblast

cytotrophoblast

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66

hormonal changes during pregnancy

hCG

estrogen

pregesterone

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67

events of placentation

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68

circulation in fetus and newborn

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69

chadwick's signs

the female reproductive organs become increasingly vascular and engorged with blood, and the vagina develops a purplish hue

70

relaxin

causes pelvic ligaments and pubic symphysis to relax, widen, and becomes more flexible

71

stages of labor

dilation stage

expulsion stage

placental stage

72

dilation stage

time from labor's onset until the cervix is fully dilated by the baby's head ( about 10cm in diameter). last about 6-12 hours or more.

73

expulsion stage

lasts from full dilation to delivery of the infant or actual birth

74

placental stage

delivery of the placenta

75

engagement

occurs when the infant's head enters the true pelvis

76

crowning

occurs when the largest dimension of the baby's head distends the vulva