Festival 5 (Digestive and Metabolism)

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Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 23, 24
Mr.Brady 2016
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1
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Which vessel delivers nutrient-rich blood to the liver from the digestive tract?

hepatic vein
hepatic portal vein
inferior vena cava
central vein

Hepatic portal vein

2

The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.

mucosal lining
serosal lining
lamina propria
mesenteries

Mesenteries

3

Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?

gastric
cephalic
intestinal
enterogastric

Enterogastric

4

Saliva does NOT __________.

clean the mouth
aid in the chemical digestion of proteins
contain carbohydrate-dissolving enzymes
dissolve food chemicals so that they can be tasted

aid in the chemical digestion of proteins

5

The __________ guards the entry of food into the stomach.

diaphragm
pyloric sphincter
ileocecal valve
cardiac sphincter

cardiac sphincter

6
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What structural modification of the small intestine slows the movement of chyme through the lumen?

microvilli
circular folds
lacteals
villi

Circular folds

7

The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.

in the walls of the tract organs
in the pons and medulla
in the glandular tissue that lines the organ lumen
in the oral cavity

in the walls of the tract organs

8
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What muscle forms the labia of the mouth?

zygomaticus
orbicularis oris
orbicularis oculi
buccinator

Orbicularis oris

9

Most digestion and absorption of nutrients occur in the __________.

large intestine
liver
stomach
small intestine

Small intestine

10

The __________ is the serous membrane that lines the abdominal body wall.

mesentery
omenta
visceral peritoneum
parietal peritoneum

Parietal peritoneum

11

The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli
the rugae and haustra
the vast array of digestive enzymes
Brunner's glands and Peyer Patches

plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli

12

Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of ________.

fermentation
anabolism
mastication
catabolism

Catabolism

13
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How would you classify chewing food?

ingestion
digestion
mechanical breakdown
propulsion

Mechanical breakdown

14

Chyme is created in the ________.

esophagus
mouth
stomach
small intestine

Stomach

15

The innermost tissue layer of the alimentary canal is the __________.

serosa
mucosa
muscularis
submucosa

Mucosa

16

In a patient suffering from a gastric ulcer caused by Helicobacter pylori, the cells most likely to have been damaged first are the ______.

enteroendocrine cells
parietal cells
chief cells
mucous cells

Mucous cells

17

True or False:

When swallowing, the epiglottis prevents food from entering the larynx.

True

18

True or False:

All the chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels.

True

19

Which teeth are best suited for cutting or nipping off pieces of food in the permanent dentition?

canines
premolars (bicuspids)
molars
incisors

Incisors

20

The major means of propelling food through the digestive tract is __________.

swallowing
peristalsis
segmentation
churning

Peristalsis

21

From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

serosa, mucosa, submucosa, and muscularis externa

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

submucosa, serosa, muscularis externa, and mucosa

muscularis externa, serosa, mucosa, and submucosa

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa

22

Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?

secretin
cholecystokinin
gastric inhibitor peptide
gastrin

Cholecystokinin

23

The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.

ingestion
absorption
digestion
secretion

Digestion

24

True or False:

The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body.

True

25

Which of the following is not a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?

replacing of damaged epithelial mucosa cells

production of intrinsic factor

thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus

tight junctions of epithelial mucosa cells

production of intrinsic factor

26

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the stomach?

The stomach produces a double-layered coat of alkaline mucus.

The stomach has three layers of muscle in the muscularis tunic.

The stomach mucosa is folded into rugae.

The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.

The stomach releases enzymes to digest carbohydrates.

27

If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.

mucosa
submucosa
muscularis externa
serosa

Serosa

28

There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.

at the end of a large meal, and the juices secreted are powerful and remain in the GI tract for a long period of time

when the meal is excessively high in acids and neutralization is required

immediately after food enters the stomach, preparing the small intestine for the influx of a variety of nutrients

before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought

29

Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.

goblet cells of the small intestine
parietal cells of the duodenum
Brunner's glands
chief cells of the stomach

Chief cells of the stomach

30

What role of the stomach is essential to life?

production of intrinsic factor
production of chyme
production of VIP
production of hydrochloric acid

Production of intrinsic factor

31

Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

K
B12
A
C

B12

32
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Which major process involves the elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus?

mechanical breakdown
defecation
ingestion
absorption

Defecation

33

What is the major digestive function of the pancreas?

production of digestive enzymes
production of glucagon
production of insulin
production of bicarbonate ions

Production of digestive enzymes

34
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How are wisdom teeth (third molars) classified?

milk teeth
incisors
primary teeth
permanent teeth

Permanent teeth

35
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Which layer of the alimentary canal contains the nerve supply of the enteric neurons that regulate digestive system activity?

submucosa
muscularis externa
mucosa
serosa

Submucosa

36
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The mucosa collapses inward when the stomach is empty, forming large folds known as __________.

cardia
fundus
rugae
pylorus

rugae

37
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What is a major function of pancreatic juice?

emulsifying fats by breaking them into smaller pieces

neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach

acidifying the contents of the small intestine

acidifying the contents of the stomach

neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach

38
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Which chemical activates the transformation of trypsinogen to trypsin?

chymotrypsin
amylase
enteropeptidase
carboxypeptidase

Enteropeptidase

39

True or False:

When swallowing, the epiglottis prevents food from entering the larynx.

True

40

Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?

glycolysis
Krebs cycle
formation of malic acid from fumaric acid
electron transport

Glycolysis

41

Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?

corn, cottonseed oil, soy oil, and wheat germ

eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish

egg yolk, fish roe, and grains

lima beans, kidney beans, nuts, and cereals

Eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish

42

__________ is the key hormone regulator of the absorptive state.

Glucagon
Cortisol
Insulin
Parathyroid hormone

Insulin

43

True or False:

The body is able to form glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors.

True

44

Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized?

fats
proteins
foods and beverages high in caffeine
vitamins and minerals

Fats

45

True or False:

The primary function of carbohydrates is energy production within cells.

True

46

When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly________.

acetyl CoA
urea
ammonia
ketone bodies

Urea

47

Glycolysis occurs in the __________ of cells and is an __________ process.

mitochondria; aerobic
cytosol; anaerobic
cytosol; aerobic
mitochondria; anaerobic

Cytosol; anaerobic

48

True or False:

The preferred energy fuel for the brain is fat.

False

49

True or False:

Cellular respiration is an anabolic process.

False

50

Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.

brain
muscles
blood
liver

Liver

51

True or False:

It would not be healthy to eliminate all fats from your diet because they serve a useful purpose in maintaining the body.

True

52

Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?

oxidative phosphorylation
lactic acid production
oxidation reactions
substrate-level phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation

53

As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.

spleen
brain
pancreas
liver

Brain

54

Which term describes the breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids?

lipolysis
beta oxidation
lipogenesis
ketogenesis

Lipolysis

55

Which nutrient molecule is the pivotal fuel molecule in the oxidative pathways?

glucose
cholesterol
fat
protein

Glucose

56

Which of the following is NOT a pathway in the oxidation of glucose?

Krebs cycle
gluconeogenesis
electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation
glycolysis

Gluconeogenesis

57

__________ are considered "bad" cholesterol; high blood levels are believed to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

HDLs
LDLs
Chylomicrons
VLDLs

LDLs

58

True or False :

There are no complete proteins. All animal products should be eaten with plant material to make a complete protein.

False

59

Which of the following is a water-soluble vitamin?

vitamin A
vitamin B
vitamin K
vitamin D

Vitamin B

60

The term metabolism is best defined as ________.

the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day

the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats

the sum of biochemical reactions involved in building and breaking down molecules

a measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories

the sum of biochemical reactions involved in building and breaking down molecules

61

Which nutrients function as coenzymes and are needed in only small amounts?

electrolytes
vitamins
carbohydrates
minerals

Vitamins

62

What is the primary function of cellular respiration - its end-purpose?

to oxidize glucose
to metabolize nutrients
to produce proteins
to generate ATP

To generate ATP

63

Which of the following would decrease body temperature?

shivering
eating a large meal
enhanced thyroxine release
dilation of cutaneous blood vessels

Dilation of cutaneous blood vessels

64

True or False:

The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.

True