Festival 3 (lymphatic and Immune system)

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Mr.Brady 2016
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1
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Which of these lymphoid organs destroys bacteria before it can breach the intestinal wall and generates "memory" lymphocytes for long-term memory? Select from letters A-D.

A

B

C

D

D

2

True and False:

Chyle is delivered to the blood via the lymphatic system.

True

3

Which of the following statements is true regarding veins versus lymphatic collecting vessels?

Veins and lymphatic vessels have a different number of tunics.

Veins have thinner walls than do lymphatic vessels.

Veins tend to form more branches (anastamoses) than do lymphatic vessels.

Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vessels.

Veins have fewer internal valves than do lymphatic vessels.

4

Which of the following lymphoid tissues/organs does NOT contain reticular connective tissue?

lymph nodes

spleen

tonsils

thymus

Thymus

5

When the lymphatic structures of a limb are blocked due to tumors, the result is ________.

severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb

abnormally high lymph drainage from the distal region

increased pressure in the lymphatics proximal in the limb to the blockage

shrinkage of tissues distal in the limb to the blockage due to inadequate delivery of lymph

severe localized edema distal to the blockage of that limb

6

Which of the following lymphoid cells secrete antibodies?

T lymphocytes

plasma cells

macrophages

dendritic cells

Plasma cells

7

Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?

ions

red blood cells

plasma proteins

water

Red blood cells

8

Which of the following is NOT a lymphoid tissue/organ?

bone marrow

tonsils

Peyer's patches

spleen

Bone marrow

9

Once collected, lymph is returned to __________.

the liver for detoxification

venous circulation

the kidneys for filtration

arterial circulation

Venous circulation

10

Which of the following is not a part of the lymphatic system?

lymphatic vessels

lymph

lymph nodes

erythrocytes

Erythrocytes

11
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Which lymphoid organ extracts aged and defective blood cells and platelets from the blood in addition to storing some of the breakdown products for later reuse? Select from letters A-D.

A

B

C

D

C

12

The __________ is (are) the most likely to become infected.

lingual tonsil

palatine tonsils

pharyngeal tonsil

tubal tonsil

Palatine tonsils

13
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Which of the following lacks lymph capillaries?

loose connective tissues

skin

small intestine

bones and teeth

Bones and teeth

14
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Lymph nodes are surrounded by a capsule from which connective tissue strands extend inward to divide the node into compartments. What is the name of these strands?

lymph sinuses

trabeculae

medullary cords

hilum

Trabeculae

15

Where is the spleen located?

left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach

clusters of lymphoid follicles located in the wall of the distal portion of the small intestines

forming a ring of lymphoid tissue around the entrance to the pharynx (throat)

inferior neck and extending into the superior thorax, partially overlying the heart deep to the sternum

left side of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and curled around the anterior aspect of the stomach

16

Which of the following is NOT a lymphatic cell?

dendritic cell

eosinophil

macrophage

reticular cell

Eosinophil

17
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What type of tissue is commonly found in all lymphoid organs and tissues (except the thymus)?

elastic cartilage connective tissue

elastic connective tissue

reticular connective tissue

areolar connective tissue

reticular connective tissue

18
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Which lymphoid organ is primarily active during the early years of life? Select from letters A-D.

A

B

C

D

B

19
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Where are worn-out erythrocytes found in the spleen?

splenic cords

red pulp

capsule

white pulp

Red pulp

20
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What is the main function of the lymphatic system?

The lymphatic system regulates blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism.

The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

The lymphatic system pumps and transports blood throughout the body.

The lymphatic system makes blood cells through a process known as hematopoiesis.

The lymphatic system returns leaked fluid and plasma proteins that escape from the bloodstream to the blood.

21

Antibodies are produced by __________.

reticular cells

macrophages

dendritic cells

plasma cells

Plasma cells

22

True or False:

The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream.

True

23

Select the correct statement about lymph transport.

Lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling.

Under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very high-pressure conduits.

Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in veins.

Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.

Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles

24

True or False:

When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells.

True

25

Lymph is most similar to __________.

interstitial fluid

blood plasma

saliva

water

Interstitial fluid

26

True or False:

Some immunocompetent cells will never be called to service in our lifetime.

True

27
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Which mechanism of antibody action results in cell lysis?

agglutination

complement fixation and activation

precipitation

neutralization

Complement fixation and activation

28

True or False:

Cellular ingestion and destruction of particulate matter is called phagocytosis.

True

29

Which of the following do NOT serve as antigen-presenting cells (APC)?

B cells

natural killer cells

macrophages

dendritic cells

Natural killer cells

30

True or False :

Adaptive immunity is provided only by lymphocytes that secrete antibodies.

False

31

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.

phagocytosis

chemotaxis

diapedesis

margination

Chemotaxis

32

What is the role of interferon in defense against disease?

activates the complement mechanism

activates the inflammatory process

protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

to kill the bacteria

Protects cells that have not yet been infected by viruses

33

Immunocompetence ________.

prevents intercellular communication so that only specific cell types respond to the invader

is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

occurs in one specific organ of the adaptive immune system

requires exposure to an antigen

is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it

34

True or False:

Substances capable of triggering the adaptive immune system and provoking an immune response are called antigens.

True

35
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Which of the following mechanisms of antibody action occur when red blood cells clump due to a transfusion of mismatched blood?

agglutination

complement fixation and activation

neutralization

precipitation

Agglutination

36
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Which cells mature in the thymus?

memory cells

T cells

effector cells

B cells

T cells

37
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Which of the following best illustrates artificially acquired active humoral immunity?

infection

vaccines

antibodies received in breast milk

antivenoms

Vaccines

38

Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

prevents the spread of the injurious agent to nearby tissue

sets the stage for repair processes

disposes of cellular debris and pathogens

Replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

39

__________ immunity protects a baby who is fed breast milk.

Artificial passive

Natural passive

Natural active

Artificial active

Natural passive

40
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How does a lymphocyte become immunocompetent?

Lymphocytes rapidly proliferate to form an army of cells exactly like themselves and bearing the same antigen-specific receptors.

Lymphocytes must be able to recognize their one specific antigen by binding to it.

An antigen binds to a particular lymphocyte that has a receptor for it.

Lymphocytes must be relatively unresponsive to self-antigens so that they do not attack the body's own cells.

Lymphocytes must be able to recognize their one specific antigen by binding to it.

41

True or False:

Fever is seldom beneficial because it speeds up the cellular metabolic rate and will not allow antigen-antibody reactions to occur.

False

42

__________ are lymphocytes that directly kill virus- infected cells.

Macrophages

B cells

Cytotoxic T cells

Helper T cells

Cytotoxic T cells

43

Antigens bound to MHC II activate __________.

macrophages

cytotoxic T cells

helper T cells

B cells

Helper T cells

44
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What are B and T cells called that have not yet been exposed to an antigen?

self-tolerant

naive

clone

immunocompetent

Naive

45

Which defense mechanism results in redness, heat, pain, and swelling?

antibody production

phagocytosis

inflammation

cell-mediated immunity

Inflammation

46
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Which mechanism occurs when antibodies block specific sites on viruses or bacterial exotoxins?

neutralization

agglutination

precipitation

complement fixation and activation

Neutralization

47

Which of the following is an effect of complement activation?

T cell activation

tissue repair

opsonization

fever

Opsonization

48

Which of the following is (are) NOT a part of the innate immune defenses?

inflammation

T cells

fever

natural killer (NK) cells

T cells

49

What mobilizes the adaptive defenses and provokes an immune response?

antigens

MHC proteins

pyrogens

interferons

Antigens

50

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.

pinocytosis

B lymphocytes

natural killer cells

T lymphocytes

Natural killer cells

51
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Which of these lymphoid organs is the thymus? Select from letters A-D.

A
B
C
D

B

52

True or False:

There are more efferent lymphatic vessels leaving a lymph node than there are afferent vessels entering a lymph node.

False

53
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The filtration of lymph and immune system activation are the two basic functions of the __________.

lymph nodes
tonsils
spleen
Peyer's patches

Lymph nodes

54
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Which of these lymphoid organs is a part of collection of tissues called the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) and removes pathogens entering the pharynx (throat)? Select from letters A-D.

A
B
C
D

A

55
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Which part of the spleen is the site of immune function?

red pulp
white pulp
splenic cords
splenic sinusoids

White pulp

56

Lymph capillaries are absent in all except which of the following?

bone marrow
bones and teeth
CNS
digestive organs

Digestive organs

57

True or False:

Like blood, lymph flows both to and from the heart

False

58

Which of the following is a role of lymph nodes?

They filter lymph.
They produce red blood cells.
They return lymph to circulation.
They produce lymph.

They filter lymph

59

Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.

B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.

T cells are the precursors of B cells.

T cells are the only form of lymphocyte found in lymphoid tissue.

The two main types are T cells and macrophages.

B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.

60

True or False:

Because lymph vessels are very low-pressure conduits, movements of adjacent tissues are important in propelling lymph through the lymphatics.

True

61

True or False:

The directional movement of cells in response to chemicals is called chemotaxis.

True

62

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.

lymph nodes
bone marrow
thymus
spleen

Bone marrow

63

True or False:

Virus infected cells secrete complement to "warn" other cells of the presence of virus.

False

64

Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?

gastric juice
keratin
phagocytes
cilia

Phagocytes

65

Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

It is specific for a given organ.
It has memory.
It is antigen-specific.
It is systemic.

It is specific for a given organ.

66

Innate immune system defenses include ________.

phagocytosis
T cells
B cells
plasma cells

Phagocytosis

67

Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?

NK cells attack cancer cells and virus-infected body cells.

NK cells attack cells that display abnormal MHC antigens.

NK cells are present in the blood, spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow.

NK cells are a type of neutrophil.

NK cells are a type of neutrophil.

68

Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.

opsonization
agglutination
diapedesis
chemotaxis

Opsonization

69
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How do interferons protect against infection in healthy cells?

Interferons perform complement activation.

Interferons promote fever, or an abnormally high body temperature.

Interferons perform opsonization to coat microorganisms.

Interferons block viral reproduction in healthy cells through the production of antiviral proteins.

Interferons block viral reproduction in healthy cells through the production of antiviral proteins.

70

What is the specific target of interferons?

specific viruses
antibodies
infected cells
nearby healthy cells

Nearby healthy cells