Festival 2 (Heart and vessels)

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Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 18, 19
Mr.Brady 2016
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1

Which of the following structures sets the pace of heart contraction?

atrioventricular bundle

SA node

bundle branches

AV node

SA node

2

The layers of the heart wall from superficial to deep are: __________.

epicardium, endocardium, and myocardium

epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium

myocardium, endocardium, and epicardium

endocardium, myocardium, and epicardium

epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium

3

Which of the following would increase heart rate?

cold temperature

low metabolic rate

epinephrine

parasympathetic stimulation

Epinephrine

4

The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ________.

ventricular repolarization

ventricular depolarization

atrial repolarization

atrial depolarization

Atrial depolarization

5
card image

At what point in the cardiac cycle is pressure in the ventricles the highest (around 120 mm Hg)?

ventricular systole

mid-to-late diastole (ventricular filling)

mid-to-late diastole (atrial contraction)

early diastole (isovolumetric relaxation)

Ventricular systole

6

The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to ________.

pump blood through a smaller valve

expand the thoracic cage during diastole

accommodate a greater volume of blood

pump blood with greater pressure

Pump blood with greater pressure

7
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At what rate does the sinoatrial (SA) node ensure depolarization in the heart?

75 beats of the heart per minute

50 beats of the heart per minute

40 beats of the heart per minute

30 beats of the heart per minute

75 beats of the heart per minute

8

The heart's pacemaker is the __________.

Purkinje fibers

atrioventricular node

sinoatrial node

atrioventricular bundle

Sinoatrial node

9

The order of impulse conduction in the heart, from beginning to end, is __________.

SA node, bundle of His, AV node, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers

SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers

SA node, bundle branches, bundle of His, AV node, and Purkinje fibers

SA node, bundle branches, AV node, bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers

SA node, AV node, bundle of His, and Purkinje fibers

10

True or False:

Auricles slightly increase blood volume in the ventricles.

False

11
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Into which chamber do the pulmonary veins send blood?

right atrium

right ventricle

left atrium

left ventricle

Left atrium

12

Which of the following terms refers to a lack of oxygen supply to heart muscle cells?

embolism

functional syncytium

infarction

ischemia

Ischemia

13

The term for pain associated with deficient blood delivery to the heart that may be caused by the transient spasm of coronary arteries is ________.

angina pectoris

myocardial infarct

pericarditis

ischemia

Angina pectoris

14

Which of the following does NOT deliver blood to the right atrium?

superior vena cava

coronary sinus

pulmonary veins

inferior vena cava

Pulmonary veins

15

What causes normal heart sounds?

pressure of blood in the ventricles

cardiac muscle contraction

opening of heart valves

heart valve closure

Heart valve closure

16
card image

Consider the following characteristics of the cells found in muscle tissue. Which feature is shared by both cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle?

branched cells

triads

striations

intercalated discs

Striations

17
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Which portion of the electrocardiogram represents the depolarization wave received from the sinoatrial (SA) node through the atria?

T wave

P wave

QRS complex

S-T segment

P wave

18

The QRS complex represents __________. Check all that apply.

atrial depolarization

ventricular repolarization

ventricular depolarization

atrial repolarization

Ventricular depolarization

19

Hemorrhage with a large loss of blood causes ________.

no change in blood pressure but a change in respiration

a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output

no change in blood pressure but a slower heart rate

a rise in blood pressure due to change in cardiac output

a lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output

20

Select the correct statement about the heart valves.

The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.

The tricuspid valve divides the left atrium from the left ventricle.

The mitral valve separates the right atrium from the right ventricle.

Aortic and pulmonary valves control the flow of blood into the heart.

The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.

21

Which chamber of the heart has the highest probability of being the site of a myocardial infarction?

left atrium

right atrium

left ventricle

right ventricle

Left ventricle

22

The role of the coronary arteries is to __________.

direct blood to the pulmonary veins

move blood from the atria to the ventricles

supply blood to the heart tissue

direct blood to the aorta

Supply blood to the heart tissue

23

True or False:

The left side of the heart pumps the same volume of blood as the right.

True

24

The __________ valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

pulmonary semilunar

mitral

aortic semilunar

tricuspid

Tricuspid

25

Substances absorbed in the intestines would be routed to the liver via the __________.

inferior vena cava

hepatic portal vein

suprarenal veins

abdominal aorta

Hepatic portal vein

26

Which of the choices below explains why the arterioles are known as resistance vessels?

Their prime function is the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and tissue cells.

They distribute blood to various parts of the body.

The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter.

They contain a large quantity of elastic tissue.

The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter.

27
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What type of vessel has relatively more smooth muscle and less elastic tissue?

elastic artery

arteriole

muscular artery

capillary

Muscular artery

28

Which of the following is NOT an important source of resistance to blood flow?

vessel length

vessel diameter

total blood volume

blood viscosity

Total blood volume

29

Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.

capillaries

arteries

arterioles

veins

Capillaries

30
card image

What blood vessel experiences the steepest drop in blood pressure?

capillaries

arterioles

venules

arteries

Arterioles

31

The aorta is an example of a(n) __________.

arteriole

elastic artery

vein

muscular artery

Elastic artery

32

What type of vessel has relatively little smooth muscle or elastin in the tunica media, a large lumen (average of 5.0 mm in diameter), and thin walls (average of 0.5 mm)?

venule

arteriole

vein

muscular artery

Vein

33

Aldosterone will ________.

result in a larger output of urine

decrease sodium reabsorption

promote an increase in blood pressure

promote a decrease in blood volume

Promote an increase in blood pressure

34

True or False:

A precapillary sphincter is a cuff of smooth muscle that regulates the flow of blood into the capillaries.

True

35

True or False:

The outermost layer of a blood vessel is the tunica intima.

False

36

What type of tissue is found in the walls of the arteries but not in the walls of capillaries and venules?

smooth muscle

collagen fibers

endothelium

elastic tissue

Elastic tissue

37

Which of the following will lower blood pressure?

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

aldosterone

angiotensin II

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

38
card image

What layer can change blood vessel diameter by vasodilation and vasoconstriction?

tunica intima

vasa vasorum

tunica externa

tunica media

Tunica media

39

True or False:

Vasodilation is a widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle contraction.

False

40

Gas and nutrient exchanges between the blood and tissues take place at the __________.

veins

arteries

arterioles

capillaries

Capillaries

41

How would an attack by a mugger affect blood pressure? What is the physiological basis for your answer?

Blood pressure would decrease due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation.

Blood pressure would decrease due to parasympathetic nervous system stimulation.

Blood pressure would increase due to parasympathetic nervous system stimulation.

Blood pressure would increase due to vagal nerve stimulation.

Blood pressure would increase due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation.

Blood pressure would increase due to sympathetic nervous system stimulation.

42

Which statement best describes arteries?

All carry oxygenated blood to the heart.

All carry blood away from the heart.

All contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood.

Only large arteries are lined with endothelium.

All carry blood away from the heart.

43

Which of the following is a long-term mechanism for maintaining blood pressure?

baroceptor-initiated reflexes

hormonal control of peripheral resistance

chemoreceptor-initiated reflexes

renal regulation

Renal regulation

44

The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?

changes in arterial pressure

an increase in oxygen levels

a decrease in oxygen levels

a decrease in carbon dioxide

Changes in arterial pressure

45

Factors that aid venous return include all except ________.

urinary output

activity of skeletal muscles

venous valves

pressure changes in the thorax

Urinary output

46

True and False:

Vasodilation will result in increased blood flow to a given tissue.

True

47

Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?

tunica externa

tunica intima

tunica media

tunica adventitia

Tunica media

48

Leaky capillaries found in the bone marrow are called __________.

arterioles

fenestrated capillaries

continuous capillaries

sinusoidal capillaries

Sinusoidal capillaries

49

Which of the following is true about veins?

Veins carry blood away from the heart, while arteries carry blood to the heart.

Veins are more muscular than arteries.

Veins have valves; arteries do not.

Veins have a smaller diameter lumen than arteries.

Veins have valves; arteries do not

50

True or False:

An increase in blood viscosity will cause an increase in peripheral resistance.

True

51

Which of the following is true about veins?

Up to 35% of total body blood is in venous circulation at any given time.

Venous valves are formed from the tunica media.

Veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of the vessel wall.

Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.

Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.

52
card image

Which type of vessel contains elastin in all three tunics to allow the vessel to expand and recoil as the heart ejects blood?

muscular artery

arteriole

distributing artery

elastic artery

Elastic artery

53

The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.

venules

arterioles

muscular arteries

elastic arteries

Arterioles

54

Which of the following would experience a decreased blood flow during exercise?

skeletal muscles

skin

brain

kidneys

Kidneys

55

True or False:

Arteries supplying the same territory are often merged with one another, forming arterial anastomoses.

True

56

__________ is the pressure that propels blood to the tissues.

Mean arterial pressure

Diastolic pressure

Pulse pressure

Systolic pressure

Mean arterial pressure

57

True or False:

The thick-walled arteries close to the heart are called muscular arteries.

False

58

Why is it important that blood pressure drop to lower levels as it reaches the capillary beds?

Because capillaries are fragile and extremely permeable.

Because capillaries actually are high-pressure vessels.

Because capillaries actually need a higher blood pressure for filtration activities.

Because capillaries depend on the lower pressure to prevent fluid exchange between the capillaries and the tissue fluid.

Because capillaries are fragile and extremely permeable.

59

The inferior vena cava carries blood __________ the __________ of the heart.

away from;left atrium

to; right atrium

away from; right atrium

to: left atrium

To; right atrium

60

Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?

angiotensin II

atrial natriuretic peptide

nitric acid

ADH

Nitric acid

61
card image

Which functional feature best describes the manner in which cardiac muscle contracts?

Nerve fibers must stimulate cardiac muscle cells for them to contract.

Only some motor units contract in cardiac muscle.

Automaticity (autorhythmicity) promotes the spontaneous contraction of the cardiac muscle cells.

Refractory periods in cardiac contractions are relatively short.

Automaticity (autorhythmicity) promotes the spontaneous contraction of the cardiac muscle cells.

62
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Into what vessel does the left ventricle eject blood?

superior vena cava

pulmonary veins

aorta

pulmonary trunk

Aorta

63

True or False:

Cardiac muscle has more mitochondria and depends less on a continual supply of oxygen than does skeletal muscle.

False

64

Which heart chamber sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs?

left atrium

right atrium

left ventricle

right ventricle

Right ventricle

65

True or False:

The myocardium receives its blood supply from the coronary arteries.

True

66

The heart has __________ chambers and __________ valves.

two; two

four; two

two; four

four; four

Four; four

67
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Specifically, what part of the intrinsic conduction system stimulates the atrioventricular (AV) node to conduct impulses to the atrioventricular bundle?

interventricular septum

subendocardial conducting network (Purkinje fibers)

bundle branches

sinoatrial (SA) node

Sinoatrial (SA) node

68

The first heart sound (the "lub" of the "lub-dup") is caused by __________.

closure of the semilunar valves

closure of the atrioventricular valves

opening of the semilunar valves

opening of the atrioventricular valves

Closure of the atrioventricular valves

69
card image

Into which chamber of the heart do the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, and coronary sinus return deoxygenated blood?

left ventricle

left atrium

right atrium

right ventricle

Right atrium

70

Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle ________.

has more nuclei per cell

cells are larger than skeletal muscle

cells has gap junctions that allow it to act as a functional syncytium

lacks striations

has gap junctions that skeletal muscle cells

71

What structures connect the individual heart muscle cells?

chordae tendineae

trabaculae carneae

intercalated discs

anastomoses

intercalated discs

72

In a healthy individual which of the following would be low?

Afterload

stroke volume

contractility

preload

Afterload