Festival 1 (Endocrine & Blood)

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Human Anatomy & Physiology
Chapters 16, 17
A&P 2 Mr.Brady 2016
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1

True or False:

Positive chemotaxis is a feedback system that signals leukocyte migration into damaged areas.

True

2

Which of the choices below is the parent cell for all formed elements of blood?

polymorphonuclear cell

megakaryocyte

hemocytoblast

normoblast

hemocytoblast

3

Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?

neural

hormonal

enzyme

humoral

enzyme

4
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When we take anti-histamines, we are countering the effects of which type of leukocyte?

neutrophils

eosinophils

lymphocytes

basophils

basophils

5

The main protein in blood plasma is ______

albumin

hemoglobin

plasmin

erythropoietin

albumin

6

Which of the following hormones helps the body avoid dehydration and water overload?

thyroid-stimulating hormone

antidiuretic hormone

follicle-stimulating hormone

oxytocin

antidiuretic hormone

7

One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?

carbohydrate oxidation

catabolic inhibition

protein synthesis

humoral stimulation

humoral stimulation

8

Which of the following occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified?

summation

synergism

permissiveness

antagonism

synergism

9

True or False:

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport two molecules of oxygen.

False

10
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What gland secretes growth hormone?

thyroid gland

adrenal cortex

posterior pituitary (lobe)

anterior pituitary (lobe)

anterior pituitary (lobe)

11

True or False:

Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine.

True

12
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Hypersecretion of what hormone can produce the effects of gigantism (individual in the center of this image)?

aldosterone

growth hormone (GH)

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

thyroid hormones (TH)

growth hormone (GH)

13
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What part of the pathway to produce platelets is shared with other formed elements?

megakaryoblast

hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast)

lymphoid stem cell

reticulocyte

hematopoietic stem cell (hemocytoblast)

14
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What do the lymphoid stem cells give rise to?

lymphocytes

granulocytes

erythrocytes

monocytes

lymphocytes

15
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What part of the body does erythropoietin (EPO) target to increase erythropoiesis?

kidneys

bone marrow

lungs

liver

bone marrow

16

Which hormone is the body's major metabolic hormone?

adrenocorticotropic hormone

thyroid hormone

antidiuretic hormone

parathyroid hormone

thyroid hormone

17

True or False:

The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.

False

18

What is the primary function of hormones?

cause allergic reactions

influence metabolic activity of glands by electrochemical impulses

alter cell activity

activate extracellular enzymes

alter cell activity

19

True or False:

Diapedesis is the process by which red blood cells move into tissue spaces from the interior of blood capillaries.

False

20

Hormones that regulate the secretory action of other endocrine glands are called ________

somatotropin

tropins

GHIH

somatostatins

tropins

21

True or False:

Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system.

False

22

Which of the following hormones mainly serves to stimulate milk production by the breasts?

prolactin

follicle-stimulating hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone

thyroid-stimulating hormone

prolactin

23

Which of the following is characteristic of all leukocytes?

They are nucleated.

They have cytoplasmic granules.

They are phagocytic.

They are the most numerous of the formed elements in blood.

They are nucleated.

24
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Which type of leukocyte is responsible for antibody production?

basophils

monocytes

eosinophils

lymphocytes

lymphocytes

25

True or False:

Oxytocin and ADH are produced in the posterior pituitary.

False

26

Which of the following is a hormone produced by the posterior pituitary?

oxytocin

ADH

HGH

none of these

none of these

27
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The majority of whole blood is ______

platelets

plasma

erythrocytes

erythrocytes

leukocytes

plasma

28

Which of the formed elements contains hemoglobin and transports respiratory gases?

erythrocytes

agranular leukocytes

platelets

granular leukocytes

erythrocytes

29

What is required for the production of anterior pituitary gland hormones?

neural stimuli (from the sympathetic division of the ANS)

hormonal stimuli

humoral stimuli

all of these

hormonal stimuli

30

Which of the following is NOT a function of blood?

distribution

regulation

hormone production

protection

hormone production

31

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ______.

the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ

the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path

nothing- all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

32

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

kidney

brain

liver

pancreas

kidney

33

Which of the following hormones stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids that help the body resist stressors?

thyroid-stimulating hormone

follicle-stimulating hormone

prolactin

adrenocorticotropic hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone

34

On a blood smear slide prepared using Wright's stain, you observe a large cell with a U-shaped nucleus and pale blue cytoplasm. This cell is most likely a(n) _______

eosinophil

basophil

monocyte

lymphocyte

monocyte

35

Which of the following is correctly matched?

aplastic anemia: results from excessive blood loss

hemolytic anemia: results from inadequate iron intake

hemorrhagic anemia: red blood cells rupture

pernicious anemia: results from a vitamin B12 deficiency

pernicious anemia: results from B12 deficiency

36

Which of the following is not a type of hormone interaction?

permissiveness

antagonism

feedback

synergism

feedback

37
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Which letter represents the adrenal glands? Select from letters A-D.

A

B

C

D

C

38
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What is the name of the protein found in erythrocytes that allows for respiratory gas transport?

albumin

fibrinogen

hemoglobin

antibodies

hemoglobin

39

True or False:

Hemorrhagic anemias result from blood loss.

True

40
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Where is thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) made? Select from letters A-D

A

B

C

D

A

41

______ is the situation when one hormone cannot exert its full effects without another hormone being present.

Antagonism

Synergism

Activism

Permissiveness

Permissiveness

42

The most abundant leukocytes are __________.

basophils

monocytes

neutrophils

lymphocytes

neutrophils

43

What is the average normal pH range of blood?

7.75-7.85

4.65-4.75

8.35-8.45

7.35-7.45

7.35-7.45

44

Platelets __________.

stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

have a life span of about 120 days

have multiple nuclei

are the precursors of leukocytes

stick to the damaged area of a blood vessel and help seal the break

45

Which of the following glands is found atop the kidneys?

pituitary

adrenal

parathyroid

thyroid

adrenal

46

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as ________.

sensitivity increase

up-regulation

a stressor reaction

cellular affinity

up-regulation

47

Which of the following is not a distribution function of blood?

transport of hormones to their target organs

transport of metabolic wastes from cells

delivery of oxygen to body cells

transport of salts to maintain blood volume

transport of salts to maintain blood volume

48
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What is hematocrit a measure of?

Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.

Hematocrit is the percentage of leukocytes and platelets in a whole blood sample.

Hematocrit is the percentage of plasma in a whole blood sample.

Hematocrit is the percentage of formed elements in a whole blood sample.

Hematocrit is the percentage of erythrocytes in a whole blood sample.

49

Bilirubin is cleared from the body by _________.

the spleen

the kidneys

the liver

the pancreas

the liver

50
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When oxygen is bound to hemoglobin, what bright red molecule is formed?

hematocrit

oxyhemoglobin

carbaminohemoglobin

deoxyhemoglobin

oxyhemoglobin

51
card image

What do the lymphoid stem cells give rise to?

monocytes

lymphocytes

erythrocytes

granulocytes

lymphocytes

52

True or False:

Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system.

True

53
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What triggers erythropoietin (EPO) production to make new red blood cells?

reduced availability of oxygen

excess of oxygen in the bloodstream

too many erythrocytes

too many platelets

reduced availability of oxygen

54
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Where are the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stored? Select from letters A-D.

A

B

C

D

C

55
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Which of the following is true of the structure of an erythrocyte?

Erythrocytes are shaped like biconcave discs.

Erythrocytes are nucleated cells.

Erythrocytes are a fixed shape and cannot change shape.

Erythrocytes are cell fragments.

Erythrocytes are shaped like biconcave discs.

56
card image

What hormone released into the blood (shown by letter D) by the posterior pituitary inhibits or prevents urine formation?

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

cortisol

oxytocin

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

57

Steroid hormones exert their action by _______.

binding cell receptors and initiating cAMP activity

entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

activating the hypothalamic release of regulating hormones

entering the cell and activating mitochondrial DNA

entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

58

True or False:

Up-regulation involves the loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.

False

59

Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

prevention of blood loss

maintenance of adequate fluid volume

maintenance of normal pH in body tissue

maintenance of body temperature

prevention of blood loss

60

True or False:

The primary source of RBCs in the adult human being is the bone marrow in the shafts of the long bones.

False

61

True or False:

Hemorrhagic anemias results from blood loss.

True

62

Which of the following is NOT a major type of stimulus that triggers endocrine glands to manufacture and release hormones?

neural

humoral

enzymatic

hormonal

enzymatic

63

Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?

moving to a lower altitude

hypoxia of EPO-producing cells

an increased number of RBCs

decreased tissue demand for oxygen

hypoxia of EPO-producing cells

64
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At what point does the receptor-hormone complex bind to DNA? Select from letters A-D.

A

B

C

D

C

65

True or False:

Hormones are long-distance chemical signals that travel in blood or lymph throughout the body.

True

66

The ________ is the fluid portion of the blood.

hemoglobin

plasma

buffy coat

hematocrit

plasma

67

True or False:

Major hormones circulate to virtually all tissues.

True

68

True or False:

Growth hormone solely exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones.

False

69

Which leukocyte functions in phagocytizing bacteria?

lymphocyte

neutrophil

eosinophil

basophil

neutrophil

70

Which of the following is NOT an endocrine gland?

adenoid

adrenal

pituitary

thyroid

adenoid

71

The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.

binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

synthesizing more than one hormone at a time

altering gene expression in the nuclear DNA

increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ

binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP

72

Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.

calcium

second messengers

deactivating ions

nucleotides

second messengers

73

Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________.

steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells

insulin, because insulin is a small peptide

glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to that of thyroid hormone

growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with thyroid hormone

steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells

74
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Which hypothalamic hormone stimulates the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary (lobe)?

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)

75
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Identify the thyroid gland. Select from letters A-D.

A

B

C

D

A

76

Which of the following is true about blood plasma?

It contains about 20 dissolved components.

It is about 90% water.

It is the same as serum but without the clotting proteins.

The main protein component is hemoglobin.

It is about 90% water.

77

ADH ________.

promotes dehydration

increases urine production

is produced in the adenohypophysis

is inhibited by alcohol

is inhibited by alcohol

78

The first step in hemostasis is __________.

vascular spasm

platelet plug formation

fibrin production

coagulation

vascular spasm