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Chapter 26: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance (Mastering)

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1

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding water intake and output by the body?

An increase in the amount of beverages taken by mouth would increase the urine output.

An increase in fluid taken by mouth would reduce the amount produced by metabolism.

An irritation to the colon that leads to diarrhea would increase the proportion of water lost through feces.

The proportion of fluid lost by the body as sweat would increase during exercise.

An increase in fluid taken by mouth would reduce the amount produced by metabolism.

2

What hormone helps to maintain correct extracellular fluid (ECF) osmolality when concentrations become too high?

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

aldosterone

angiotensin II

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

3

What type of water imbalance increases the amount of fluid in all compartments?

dehydration

hypotonic hydration

inflammation

edema

hypotonic hydration

4

Which of the following conditions promotes edema?

diabetes mellitus

hemorrhage

hyponatremia

hypoproteinemia

hypoproteinemia

5

What negatively charged ion is reabsorbed by renal tubules when the blood pH is drawing near its alkaline limit?

NO2 -

Cl-

PO4 -3

HCO3 -

Cl-

6

Which of the following would NOT be associated with a rise in K+ concentration in the extracellular fluid (ECF)?

a drop in Na+ reabsorption

a rise in K+ excretion

release of aldosterone

stimulation of the adrenal cortex

a drop in Na+ reabsorption

7

Of the three buffering mechanisms in the body, which is the strongest?

chemical buffer system

renal system

respiratory system

renal system

8

The bicarbonate buffer system is one of the chemical buffer systems of the body. How would the bicarbonate buffer system work if sodium hydroxide were added to a solution?

The hydrogen ion would attach to carbonic acid.

A hydrogen on carbonic acid would dissociate and join the hydroxyl group on the base to form water and sodium bicarbonate.

The hydrogen ion would attach to bicarbonate (HCO3) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3).

A hydrogen on carbonic acid would dissociate and join the hydroxyl group on the base to form water and sodium bicarbonate.

9

The respiratory system is one of the three systems that regulate acid-base balance in the body. How does it work to decrease an acidosis?

Carbonic acid is broken down into water and CO2; the CO2 is then exhaled.

Carbonic acid is converted to bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.

Carbonic acid is converted to bicarbonate, which then buffers the acid.

Carbonic acid converts a strong acid to a weak acid, thus decreasing acidity.

Carbonic acid is broken down into water and CO2; the CO2 is then exhaled.

10

In a respiratory acidosis the kidney would do which of the following?

The kidney would reabsorb bicarbonate and secrete hydrogen ions.

The kidney will reabsorb both bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.

When it reabsorbs the hydrogen ion, it also generates more bicarbonate ions.

The kidney would increase excretion of both bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.

The kidney would reabsorb bicarbonate and secrete hydrogen ions.

11

Ingesting too much antacid would cause which of the following acid-base disturbances?

metabolic acidosis

respiratory alkalosis

metabolic alkalosis

respiratory acidosis

metabolic alkalosis

12

Vomiting will cause which type of acid-base disturbance?

metabolic acidosis

metabolic alkalosis

respiratory acidosis

respiratory alkalosis

metabolic alkalosis

13

Severe anxiety would cause which type of acid-base disturbance? What would be the compensation?

respiratory alkalosis; kidneys would excrete HCO3

respiratory alkalosis; kidneys would retain HCO3

respiratory acidosis; kidneys would excrete HCO3

metabolic alkalosis; hypoventilation by the lungs

respiratory alkalosis; kidneys would excrete HCO3

14

What is the most important trigger for aldosterone release?

increased osmolality of the extracellular fluids (ECF)

decreased sodium ion concentration in the extracellular fluids (ECF)

renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

decreased K+ concentration in the extracellular fluids (ECF)

renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism

15

Which of the following does NOT impact how much sodium is reabsorbed?

atrial natriuretic peptide

estrogen

transport maximum of the renal proximal tubule

aldosterone

transport maximum of the renal proximal tubule

16

Which of the following is NOT an effect of PTH?

increase Ca2+ reabsorption in the kidneys

to decrease Ca+ absorption in the gut

to activate osteoclasts

promotes activation of vitamin D by the kidneys

to decrease Ca+ absorption in the gut

17

Hypersecretion of aldosterone results in hypokalemia, which causes hyperpolarization of neurons; this in turn results in ______.

increased speed of sodium-potassium pump activity in order to compensate for the reduced concentration of potassium ions

decreased plasma membrane permeability to potassium ions

the need for a stronger than normal stimulus in order to trigger an action potential

a craving for more salt in the diet

the need for a stronger than normal stimulus in order to trigger an action potential

18

Which of the following is the only logical explanation for why hypocalcemia increases neuromuscular excitability and causes muscle tetany?

Low plasma calcium ion concentration decreases the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Low plasma calcium ion concentration decreases the rate of exocytosis of synaptic vesicles.

Low plasma calcium ion concentration increases the permeability of neuron membranes to sodium ions, thereby causing depolarization that in turn increases the likelihood of action potentials being generated.

Low plasma calcium ion concentration increases the likelihood of acetic acid and choline being formed in the synaptic cleft when a neuron is stimulated to the threshold level.

Low plasma calcium ion concentration increases the permeability of neuron membranes to sodium ions, thereby causing depolarization that in turn increases the likelihood of action potentials being generated.

19

What is the primary buffer in the plasma?

sodium-potassium buffer system

bicarbonate buffer system

protein buffer system

phosphate buffer system

bicarbonate buffer system

20

An increase in blood CO2 levels leads to __________.

a decrease in carbonic acid

an increase in blood pH

a decreased respiratory rate

a drop in blood pH

a drop in blood pH