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Chapter 23: Digestive System (Mastering)

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1

Art-labeling Activity: Figure 23.16a

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2

Art-labeling Activity: Figure 23.16b

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3

Art-labeling Activity: Figure 23.24c

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4

Art-labeling Activity: Figure 23.27

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5

Art-labeling Activity: Figure 23.29

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6

Art-labeling Activity: Figure 23.32d

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7

Art-labeling Activity: Figure 23.32c

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8

Which layer of the alimentary canal is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis?

submucosa

muscularis externa

mucosa

serosa

muscularis externa

9

Which layer of the alimentary canal contains not only glands and blood vessels but also a nerve plexus that helps regulate digestive activity?

serosa

submucosa

muscularis externa

mucosa

submucosa

10

The __________ circulation drains all of the organs of the digestive system.

splanchnic

hepatic portal

peritoneal

visceral

hepatic portal

11

Which layer of the digestive tract controls digestive propulsion?

mucosa

serosa

submucosa

muscularis externa

muscularis externa

12

Unitary smooth muscle is found in all hollow organs except for the heart. What structure do both heart muscle and unitary smooth muscle share that allows them to contract as a functional group?

T tubules

gap junctions

caveolae

epimysium

gap junctions

13

Which digestive process does NOT occur in the mouth?

mechanical breakdown

digestion

segmentation

ingestion

segmentation

14

What control mechanism opens the gastroesophageal sphincter?

detection of nutrients in the esophagus

pH changes in the esophagus

constriction of the upper esophageal sphincter

peristalsis in the esophagus

peristalsis in the esophagus

15

Which of the following constitute a portal triad?

the porta hepatis

the hepatic artery and two hepatic veins

a bile duct along with a portal venule and arteriole

three lobules sharing a common central vein

a bile duct along with a portal venule and arteriole

16

Which of the following best describes the capillary wall structure found in the liver lobules?

The walls are continuous, only allowing small molecules and water to pass through.

The walls only allow water to pass through.

The walls have windows that allow small proteins to pass through but not cells.

The capillary walls have openings that allow large proteins and small cells to pass through.

The capillary walls have openings that allow large proteins and small cells to pass through.

17

What is a major function of pancreatic juice?

acidifying the contents of the stomach

acidifying the contents of the small intestine

neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach

emulsifying fats by breaking them into smaller pieces

neutralizing chyme entering the small intestine from the stomach

18

Bile is secreted by the __________ under hormonal influence of __________.

pancreas; secretin

liver; secretin

gallbladder; CCK

small intestine; CCK

liver; secretin

19

Which of the following is NOT a secretion of the pancreas?

bicarbonate

nutrient enzymes

insulin

bile

Bile

20

Which cells in the small intestine's mucosa secrete mucus?

enteroendocrine cells

Paneth cells

goblet cells

enterocytes

goblet cells

21

Which of these best describes a lacteal?

a projection of the small intestine wall designed to increase surface area

a deep pocket in the intestinal wall where endocrine and antimicrobial cells are located

special capillaries in the villi designed for absorbing food effectively

a lymphatic vessel designed to help introduce fats to the blood

a lymphatic vessel designed to help introduce fats to the blood

22

Most absorption of nutrients occurs in the __________.

jejunum

duodenum

large intestine

stomach

jejunum

23

Which of the following propels food residue over large areas of the colon three to four times a day?

Valsalva's maneuver

mass movement

haustral contractions

defecation reflex

mass movement

24

Which of the following is the primary physiological function of the large intestine?

nutrient absorption

mechanical breakdown of food

water absorption and feces elimination

primary digestion of food

water absorption and feces elimination

25

What type of blood capillary located in this sublayer is uniquely suited for absorption of nutrient material?

fenestrated

continuous

lacteals

sinusoidal

fenestrated