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Chapter 21: Immunity System (Mastering)

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1

Tears and mucus membranes would be a part of which defense system?

innate external defenses

innate internal defenses

adaptive defenses

innate external defenses

2

Phagocytotic cells such as macrophages identify a variety of enemies by recognizing markers unique to pathogens. They would be classified as which type of defense system?

innate internal defenses

adaptive defenses

innate external defenses

innate internal defenses

3

What cells make antibodies?

plasma B cells

cytotoxic T cells

memory B cells

memory T cells

plasma B cells

4

What is the name of the unique area (specific region) that a lymphocyte recognizes and binds to?

antigen

pathogen

antibody

an antigenic determinant

an antigenic determinant

5

What type of immunity can be transferred by bodily fluids from one person to another, thus conferring immunity to the recipient?
humoral immunity

cell-mediated immunity

cellular immunity

humoral immunity

6

If a virus attacks a cell, which type of immunity would be activated?

antibody-mediated immunity

humoral immunity

cell-mediated immunity (cellular immunity)

cell-mediated immunity (cellular immunity)

7

Cancer cells would be attacked by which of the following cells?

B cells

macrophages

Cytotoxic T cells

Cytotoxic T cells

8

What is the role of helper T cells in the adaptive immune response?

Helper T cells activate B cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill infected host cells.

Helper T cells directly kill infected host cells.

Helper T cells phagocytize bacteria and viruses.

Helper T cells produce and secrete antibodies.

Helper T cells activate B cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes to kill infected host cells.

9

What is meant by the clonal expansion of a B cell?

An activated B cell will engulf and digest anything foreign.

An activated B cell divides into cells that give rise to memory B cells and plasma cells.

An activated B cell will immediately begin to produce antibodies.

An activated B cell will kill infected host cells.

An activated B cell divides into cells that give rise to memory B cells and plasma cells.

10

The student who caught the cold caused by this specific Rhinovirus was exposed to the exact same Rhinovirus 18 months later. What component of the immune system will protect her from getting the same cold again?

Memory B cells

Dendritic cells

Plasma cells

Antibodies that are “left over” from the last infection

Memory B cells

11

Correctly order the steps involved cellular immunity:

  1. The Tc recognizes the infected host cell
  2. The Tc interacts with epitope presented by MHC-I on the dendritic cell
  3. The Tc secretes perforin and granzyme, causing apoptosis
  4. The helper T cell activates the Tc cell

2,1,3,4

2,4,1,3

1,2,4,3

4,2,1,3

2,4,1,3

12

Which of the following is NOT a step used by cytotoxic T cells to kill infected host cells?

Secretion of perforin

Recognition of infected host cell using its CD4 glycoprotein

Recognition of infected host cell using its TCR

Secretion of granzyme

Recognition of infected host cell using its CD4 glycoprotein

13

Place the following steps of phagocytosis in the order that they occur:

  1. Endosome fuses with lysozome
  2. Dendritic cell engulfs Rhinovirus
  3. Epitopes are attached to MHC-II
  4. Digestion of the Rhinovirus
  5. MHC-II plus the attached epitope move to the outside of the dendritic cell

2,1,3,4,5

1,2,4,3,5

2,1,4,3,5

2,4,1,3,5

2,1,4,3,5

14

Which pair of molecules do NOT directly interact with one another?

BCR and epitope

BCR and TCR

CD8 and MHC-I

CD4 and MHC-II

BCR and TCR

15

Which of the following is NOT a step that ultimately leads to antibody production?

Activation of cytotoxic T cells by helper T cells

Immature B cells conducting surveillance for foreign epitopes

Differentiation of plasma cells

Activation of helper T cells by dendritic cells

Activation of cytotoxic T cells by helper T cells

16

A person who has AIDS contracts rare and often life-threatening infections because their helper T cell count is so low. Which of the following components of the immune response still respond to antigen despite the low helper T cell count?

Clonal selection of B cells

Apoptosis of infected host cells

Clonal expansion and antibody production

Activation of cytotoxic T cells

Clonal selection of B cells

17

Which of the following statements is true?

Adaptive defenses include humoral immunity only.

Adaptive defenses include both humoral and cellular immunity.

Memory B cells are typically established when the B cell binds to an antigen.

Innate defenses are enough to keep a person healthly.

Adaptive defenses include both humoral and cellular immunity.

18

Which of the following are antigen-presenting cells (APC)?

T cells

natural killer cells

memory cells

B cells

B cells

19

Which of the following cells engulf antigens and present fragments of them on their own surfaces for recognition?

T lymphocytes

NK cells

dendritic cells

plasma cells

dendritic cells

20

Which cells secrete histamines that trigger inflammatory pathways?

mast cells

macrophages

neutrophils

NK cells

mast cells

21

Which of the following is an effect of complement activation?

opsonization

tissue repair

fever

T cell activation

opsonization

22

Class II MHC proteins are found on which of the following cell types?

all nucleated cells

antigen-presenting cells

antigen-presenting cells

23

Which class of MHC proteins presents exogenous antigens?

class I MHC proteins

class II MHC proteins

class II MHC proteins

24

Class I MHC proteins are recognized by which of the following cell types (that are destined to become T cells)?

CD8

CD4

CD8

25

Which of the following types of cells display protein fragments produced by the cancer within them?

all nucleated cells

macrophages

B cells

dendritic cells

all nucleated cells

26

Which major class of lymphocytes become cytotoxic T cells?

CD4 cells

CD6 cells

CD8 cells

CD8 cells

27

Which of the following activate CD8 cells?

peptides containing 14-17 amino acids

antigen fragments on class I MHC proteins

exogenous antigens

antigens on class II MHC proteins

antigen fragments on class I MHC proteins

28

What type of T cell can directly attack and kill other cells, such as virus-infected cells?

cytotoxic T (TC) cells

APC

regulatory T (TReg) cells

helper T (TH) cells

cytotoxic T (TC) cells

29

Which of these mechanisms do cytotoxic T (TC) cells use to destroy a target--that is, deliver a lethal hit?

the seeking of cells lacking class I MHC proteins

agglutination of target cells

perforation of the membrane

opsonization

perforation of the membrane

30

Which type of T cell will recognize antigens associated with an organ transplant?

helper T (TH) cells

cytotoxic T (TC) cells

CD8 cells

regulatory T (TReg) cell

cytotoxic T (TC) cells

31

T cells achieve self-tolerance in the __________.

bone marrow

thymus

tonsils

lymph nodes

thymus

32

Which of the following are NOT appropriately matched?

helper T cells: destroy infected cells

B cells: produce free antibodies cytotoxic

T cells: destroy virally infected cells

macrophages: antigen-presenting cells

helper T cells: destroy infected cells

33

Activated CD8 cells become __________.

B cells

cytotoxic T cells

NK cells

helper T cells

cytotoxic T cells