What is the function of the coronary circulation?
Provide a blood supply to the aortic arch
Provide a blood supply to the heart
Provide a blood supply to the pericardium
Provide a blood supply to the lungs
What is the ligamentum arteriosum?
A remnant of the ductus arteriosus
A ligament attaching the aorta to the superior vena cava
A ligament securing the aorta
A remnant of the foramen ovale
Which chamber of the heart exits into the pulmonary trunk?
Identify the ear like flaps that are attached to the top chambers of the heart.
The first branch off the arch of the aorta is the brachiocephalic artery in both the sheep and the human.
Identify the most muscular chamber.
Identify the valve found between the left atrium and left ventricle.
Bicuspid (mitral) valve
What heart chamber pushes blood through the aortic semilunar valve?
Name the needle like ridges of muscle lining the ventricles.
What fibrous structure functions to anchor the atrioventricular valves in a closed position?
Blood on the right never mixes with blood on the left, once the heart is fully developed.
Name the ridged bundles of muscle found projecting inside the right atrium.
Identify the right atrioventricular valve.
Aortic semilunar valve
Identfiy the valve located at the exit of the right ventricle.
Aortic semilunar valve
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Action potentials generated by the autorhythmic cells spread to the contractile cells through what structures in the membrane?
One of the changes that occurs in the pacemaker potential (unstable resting membrane potential) in the SA node (an autorhythmic cell) is a decreased efflux of what ion?
When threshold is reached at the SA node (an autorhythmic cell), what channels open causing further depolarization of the membrane?
Repolarization of an autorhythmic cell is due to the opening of which channels?
voltage-gated sodium channels
Chemically gated potassium channels
voltage-gated potassium channels
chemically gated calcium channels
In order to cause cardiac muscle contraction, the contractile cells must also depolarize. What causes the depolarization of the contractile cells?
the flow of negative ions from adjacent cells
an unstable resting membrane potential in the contractile cells
the flow of positive ions from adjacent cells
Which part of the conduction system initiates the depolarizing impulse, which spreads throughout the heart?
AV bundle (bundle of His)
What does the ECG wave tracing represent?
contraction of the heart
electrical activity in the heart
What does the QRS complex represent in the ECG wave tracing?
atrial depolarization v
Contraction of the atria results from which wave of depolarization on the ECG tracing?
Which part of the intrinsic conduction system delays the impulse briefly before it moves on to the ventricles?
AV bundle (bundle of His)
Isovolumetric relaxation and ventricular filling (two phases of the cardiac cycle) take place during __________.
Which of the following is correct about the filling of the ventricles?
The majority of ventricular filling is caused by contraction of the atria.
Most blood flows passively into the ventricles through open AV valves.
Describe the pressures in the atria and ventricles that would cause the opening of the AV valves.
Pressure in the atria would be greater than the pressure in the ventricles.
Pressure in the ventricles would be greater than in the atria.
Pressures in the atria and ventricles would be equal.
What causes the aortic semilunar valve to close?
higher ventricular pressure than aortic pressure
equal ventricular and aortic pressures
greater pressure in the aorta than in the left ventricle
Put the phases of the cardiac cycle in the correct order, starting after ventricular filling.
isovolumetric contraction, ventricular ejection, isovolumetric relaxation
isovolumetric relaxation, ventricular ejection, isovolumetric contraction
ventricular ejection, isovolumetric contraction, isovolumetric relaxation
ventricular ejection, ventricular relaxation, isovolumetric contraction
Increased pressure in the ventricles would close what valve(s)?
both semilunar and AV valves
AV valves only
semilunar valves only
Which of the following would increase cardiac output?
decreased calcium during contraction
high blood pressure
Which of the following is NOT a factor that increases stroke volume?
stimulation increasing afterload
Calculate the stroke volume if the end diastolic volume (EDV) is 135 mL and the end systolic volume (ESV) is 60 mL.
What structures connect the individual heart muscle cells?
Which statement regarding cardiac muscle structure is accurate?
Myofibrils of cardiac muscle tissue vary in diameter and branch extensively.
Cardiac muscle cells are independent of one another both structurally and functionally.
Cardiac cells are long, cylindrical, and multinucleate.
Cardiac cells possess few mitochondria.
The _________ carries oxygen-poor venous blood from above the diaphragm from areas of the upper body and extremities into the right atrium.
The _________ carries oxygen-poor venous blood of the coronary circulation into the right atrium.
The ________ carries oxygen-poor venous blood from below the diaphragm from the areas of the lower body and extremities into the right atrium.
Right-Sided Anatomical Features
Drag and drop the correct identification label to the box with a leader line. Answers may be used once or not at all.
Flow through the Right Side of the Heart
Assume that blood is flowing from the coronary sinus to the lung capillaries. Place the anatomical labels in order of flow in the target boxes. Not all labels are used.
Part D - Oxygen-Rich Blood Returning to the Heart
Drag and drop the terms to arrange them, from left to right, in order of blood flow of oxygen-rich blood into the heart.
The structure that prevents backflow of blood into the left atrium is the _________
The capillaries receiving blood flow from the left side of the heart are the _________
The structure that is located anatomically between the aorta and the left ventricle is the ___________
Part F - Conclusion: Valves in Blood Flow through the Heart
Drag and drop valve names to their correct location in the image.
Sort the terms into the appropriate category of either oxygen-poor or oxygen-rich.
Select the correct partial path. This path is part of the complete blood flow pathway. You should be able to trace flow starting in any location.
pulmonary artery into left atrium through mitral valve to left ventricle
systemic veins returning to the left atrium and forward through the mitral valve
pulmonary trunk to pulmonary arteries to pulmonary capillaries to pulmonary veins returning to the right atrium
aorta to smaller systemic arteries to systemic capillaries to systemic veins to right atrium through the tricuspid valve